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Agriculture, Plant and animal sciences, industrial, medicine, pharmacogenomics, forensic science, food science.

Application of Biotechnology

Ancient biotechnology, classical biotechnology, modern biotechnology.

Stages of Biotechnology

Science is meaning knowledge- is the study of nature and natural phenomena.


is a systematic to answer a scientific question. Scientific method consists of the collection of data, observation,experimentation and the formulation and testing of hypothesis.

Science method

pre formed prejudices

Subjective reasoning

result obtained using scientific method

objective reasoning

you started the car, the car doesn't start. explain on prior knowledge- question-hypothesis-experiment- observations- conclusions.

example of scientific method

condition or event that we measure, control or is under study

Independent ( manipulated) variable

condition that could change under the influence of the independent variable ( measure this)

Dependent ( responding) variable

conditions which could effect the outcome of the expt so they must be held constant between groups

Control varibles

groups subjected to the independent variable

experimental group

group not subject to the independent variable, used as measuring stick

control group

producing the same result consistently to verify result. It is therefore important to describe your experimental design in enough detail for other to perform the same experiment


The different between measured/calculated and the true value


A measure of how close experimental value is to the true value


is mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data.


maximum-minimum, range of dispersion about mean. all the values fall in the range


arithmetic average- sum of all observations divided by the total number of observation


states that there are no differences between control and experimental groups

Null hypothesis

states that there are differences between control and experimental groups

Alternative Hypothesis

the closer it is to zero the more likely that null hypothesis is false- ex p value 0.01 means that there is one in 100 probability that the null hypothesis is true.

P value

express their result as lying between 95% confidence interval.

95% confidence

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