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Agriculture, Plant and animal sciences, industrial, medicine, pharmacogenomics, forensic science, food science.

Application of Biotechnology

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Ancient biotechnology, classical biotechnology, modern biotechnology.

Stages of Biotechnology

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Science is meaning knowledge- is the study of nature and natural phenomena.

Science

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is a systematic to answer a scientific question. Scientific method consists of the collection of data, observation,experimentation and the formulation and testing of hypothesis.

Science method

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pre formed prejudices

Subjective reasoning

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result obtained using scientific method

objective reasoning

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you started the car, the car doesn't start. explain on prior knowledge- question-hypothesis-experiment- observations- conclusions.

example of scientific method

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condition or event that we measure, control or is under study

Independent ( manipulated) variable

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condition that could change under the influence of the independent variable ( measure this)

Dependent ( responding) variable

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conditions which could effect the outcome of the expt so they must be held constant between groups

Control varibles

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groups subjected to the independent variable

experimental group

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group not subject to the independent variable, used as measuring stick

control group

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producing the same result consistently to verify result. It is therefore important to describe your experimental design in enough detail for other to perform the same experiment

reproducibility

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The different between measured/calculated and the true value

Error

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A measure of how close experimental value is to the true value

Accuracy

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is mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data.

Statistics

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maximum-minimum, range of dispersion about mean. all the values fall in the range

range

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arithmetic average- sum of all observations divided by the total number of observation

Mean

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states that there are no differences between control and experimental groups

Null hypothesis

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states that there are differences between control and experimental groups

Alternative Hypothesis

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the closer it is to zero the more likely that null hypothesis is false- ex p value 0.01 means that there is one in 100 probability that the null hypothesis is true.

P value

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express their result as lying between 95% confidence interval.

95% confidence

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