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Immunology Chapter 16
Terms in this set (43)
What HLA is associated with Ankylosing spondylitis?
What HLAs are associated with Celiac Disease?
DQ2 and DQ8
What HLA is associated with Multiple Sclerosis?
What HLA is associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
What HLA is associated with Addison's disease, Grave's Disease, and Myasthenia gravis?
What HLA is associated with Type 1 diabetes?
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
the actual MHC class I and MHC class II molecule present on the surface of a person's cells
is the genetic location of the genes that encodes the various MHC molecules located on chromosomes 6
variations among MHC proteins "the result of allelic polymorphisms"
inherited gene complex from parents, shared haplotypes increase risk for autoimmune disease
DQ2 and DQ8 allotropes have also been associated with increased risk of developing cell
Which haplotype have been associated with an increase risk autoimmune disorders?
DQ2 and DQ8
Group A Streptococcus is associated with what autoimmune disease?
Chlaymdia trachomatis is associated with which HLA and autoimmune disease?
HLA-B27; arthrirtis '"reiter's syndrome"
Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni are associates with which HLA and autoimmune disease?
HLA- B27; Reactive arthritis
Borrelia burgdorderi is associated with which HLAs and autoimmune disease?
HLA-DR2, DR4; Chronic arthritis in Lyme disease
Coxsackie A virus, Coxsackie B virus, echoviruses, rubella are associated with which HLAs and autoimmune disease?
HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ8, DR4 and Type 1 diabetes
are masses of abnormally growing cells the have not invaded the surrounding tissues
is used to signify abnormally growing cells that have penetrated a basement membrane and metastasized to other locations
is the term used to describe the spreading of cancerous cells from one site to another
genes that normally promote cell division
The mutant forms of proto-oncogenes that contribute to malignant transformation
are only expressed by cancerous cells
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)
are found in both cancerous and healthy cells i.e MAGE-1, tyrosinase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Hepatitis B virus is associated with what type of cancer?
HPV is associated with what type of cancer?
Epstein-Barr virus is associated with what type of cancer?
Burkitt's lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
How are monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancers?
target the suppressive mediators secreted by tumors. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target the immunosuppressive cytokine, TGF-β
is when a dentrictic cell from the donor make it way to a secondary lymphatic organ alerting the T-cell in resident that it does not belong, lead to an attack of the graft.
occurs when a recipient dendritic cell eat a dying donor cell and bring it to the body attention. CD4 cells will activate
occurs many months or even years after a graft has been transplanted. Chronic rejection occurs when recipient CD4 T cells—that were activated through the indirect pathway of allorecognition—begin to provide help to alloreactive B cells. Once provided with T-cell help, B cells can produce class-switched, high-affinity alloantibodies
is one of the fastest ways a graft can be rejected by a recipient's immune system. Hyperacute rejection may occur within hours of transplantation, and is caused by preexisting antibodies to alloantigens present on the graft.
Why are mothers who have given birth a bigger risk for developing alloantibodies?
the trauma of delivering a baby can expose the maternal immune system to the baby's paternal MHC haplotype.
cause of acute rejection a Type IV reaction. Due to the diversity in MHC allotypes in human population, there is a chance that they can be alloreactive.
The three strategies for impairing the immune system for transplant
a. Deplete cells involved in allorecognition
b. Interfere with T-cells activation signals
c. Prevent proliferation and activity of Effector T-cells
What treatments can be used to deplete cells involved in allorecognition?
- Anti CD52
- Anti-thymocyte Globulin
What treatment can be used to interfere with T-cells activation singals?
are inhibitors of calcineurin
block co-stimulatory signals in T-cells "B7 & CD28, can also be mimics by *Belatacept8
bind to the high-affinity Il-2
key benefit is it will not affect the survival of naive T -cell
Tacrolimus and Cyclosporin
are inhibitors of calcineurin
block co-stimulatory signals in T-cell activation between B7 and CD28
Basilixmab and Dacilzumab
bind to high affinity Il-2
What treatment prevent effector T-cells
i.e. Methotrexate and Mycophenolate
four time more potent than hydrocortisone, fight inflammation
MHC class 1 has what 3 HLA
A, B and C
MHC class 2 has what 3 HLA
DP, DQ, and DR
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