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Differences between public speaking and other forms of communication
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Terms in this set (126)
- public speaking contains a structure and purpose that adds a level of responsibility
-audience ability to respond differs it from mass communication
-unlike private convos with self and friends public speaking is directed at specific groups of people and designed to be shared with others outside that group
- responsibility for organization, delivery and flow of communication on one person
- ethics
Model of the Public Speaking Process-7 components -Speaker -message -audience -feedback -channel -noise -contextSpeaker (model of public speaking)the person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral messageMessage (model of public speaking)the info conveyed by the speaker to the audience --verbal and nonverbal --goal to craft a message relevant to the audience --can be intentional and unintentionalAudience (model of public speaking)- the complex and varied individuals the speaker addressesChannel (model of public speaking)the means by which the message is conveyed -ex: by spoken word, gesturesNoise (model of public speaking)-anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated --external: interference outside the speaker or audience --internal: interference within the speaker or audienceFeedback (model of public speaking)the verbal and nonverbal signals the audience gives the speakerContext (model of public speaking)the environment or situation in which a speech occursCommunication Apprehension- fear and anxiety associated with the idea of communication with a person or people --trait anxiety --state (situational) anxietyTrait Anxiety-fear of communication with others in any situation --a form of communication apprehensionState (situational) Anxiety-Fear of communicating with others in a particular situation --a form of communication apprehensionHow to build your Confidence as a Speaker-Do more research --more prep= more relaxed/at ease --less worried about drawing a blank -Practice your Speech -- Systematic Desensitization - Have realistic expectations -Practice visualization and Affirmations --Cognitive RestructuringVisualizations and Affirmations (how to build confidence)visualizations: imagining yourself being successful affirmations: positive, motivating statementsSystematic Desensitization (how to build confidence)taking feelings of fear away and replacing them with calm and relaxed feelingsCognitive Restructuring (How to build confidence)taking negative thoughts/assessments and replacing them with (more realistic) affirmationsWhy we sometimes fail to listeninterference: anything that hinders a listeners from receiving a message --listener interference --speaker interferenceListener interference (why we sometimes fail to listen)- think you're not interested in the subject before the speech really gets going -tune out information that you don't agree withSpeaker Interference ( why we sometimes fail to listen)can be cause by: Information Differences Technology LanguageInformation (Speaker Interference)- speech must be listenable and considerate --Listenable speech: is considerate and in an oral style --Considerate speech: eases the audiences burden of processing informationDifferences (Speaker Interference)-Speaker style, background, appearance, valuesTechnology (Speaker Interferences)equipment failureLanguage (Speaker Interference)-Technical language: --Jargon -Casual Language: --Slang --Colloquialism --Euphemism -Noninclusive Language: --Gender-inclusive language --Culturally inclusive language --Spotlighting -Verbal ClutterJargon, Technical Language (speaker Interference)technical language used by a special group or for a special activity, Define it first!Slang, Casual Language (speaker interference)informal nonstandard vocal normally made up of arbitrarily changed wordsColloquialism , Casual Language (speaker interference)a word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation.Euphemism, Casual Language (speaker interference)a mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassingGender-inclusive language, Non inclusive Language (speaker interference)recognizing that both women and men are active participants in the world -when not used is non inclusive and causes speaker interferenceCulturally inclusive, Non inclusive Language (speaker interference)respectfully recognizes the differences among the many cultures in our society -when not used is non inclusive and causes speaker interferenceSpotlighting, Non-Inclusive Language (speaker interference)practice of highlighting a person's race, ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, physical disability during a speechVerbal Clutter (speaker Interference)extra words that pad sentences and claims but don't add meaningChoosing your Speech Topic-keep requirements of assignment/context in mind -match your interests and expertise to the assignment/task at hand -BrainstormingBrainstorming (choosing your speech topic)- process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevance - by free association - by cluster - by categories - by technologyBrainstorming by Free Association (choosing your speech topic)recording all the ideas that come to mindBrainstorming by cluster (choosing your speech topic)visual way, write a main center idea and then branch off that idea and continue to branch from next onesBrainstorming by categories (choosing your speech topic)create categories and then list ideas/words under each categoryBrainstorming by technology (choosing your speech topic)use search engines, librariesArticulating your PurposeTo inform To invite To persuade To introduce To commemorate To acceptThesis (articulating your purpose)- summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main ideas, assumptions, or arguments you want to express in your speech -Should not be a questionConsidering Audience as a Diverse GroupA collection of people who have gathered to hear the speaker's message audience members have various master status, standpoints, attitudes, values and beliefsConsider your speaking environmentspeaking environment: time and place in which a speaker will speak -size and physical arrangement -technology -temporal factors (time of day, speaking order, length of speech) -how might your speech change if you were speaking at a conference, outside, during the eveningFinding information of the Internet- ethics of internet research -evaluating internet infoEthics of internet research (Finding information of the Internet)-can be an excellent source of info but must be used properly to get info that you can use ethically in speech use only reliable and relevant info and accurately credit the sourcesEvaluating internet info (Finding information of the Internet)-is the info reliable? -is the info authoritative? (author(s)) -how current is the info? -how complete is the info? -is the info relevant? -is the info consistent and unbiased?Plagiarism/Typespresenting another person's words and ideas as your own --patchwork --global --incrementalGlobal Plagiarism (Plagiarism/Types)stealing an entire speech from a single source and presenting it as your ownPatchwork Plagiarism (Plagiarism/Types)constructing a complete speech that you present as your own from portions of several different speechesCiting Sources-two reasons: it is ethical and it add credibility to your ideas -adds credibility -is ethical -rules of citing --give credit to others (during speech) --give specific info about sources --deliver all info accuratelyMain Points- most important ideas you address in your speech -identify your main points -use an appropriate number of main points -order your main pointsTopical Pattern (Main Points, Organization)pattern of organization that allows the speaker to divide a topic into subtopic, each of which addresses a different aspect of the larger topicProblem-Solution Pattern (Main Points, Organization)pattern of organization that identifies a specific problem and offers a possible solutionCausal Pattern (Main Points, Organization)pattern of organization that describes a cause and effect relationship between ideas or eventsSpatial Pattern (Main Points, Organization)pattern of organization that arranges ideas in terms of location or directionChronological Pattern (Main Points, Organization)pattern of organization that traces a sequence of events or ideasConnectivesword or phrase used to link ideas in a speech --transitions --internal preview --internal summaries --signpostSignpost (Connectives)simple word or statement that indicates where you are in your speech or highlights an important ideaInternal Summaries (Connectives)statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussedInternal Preview (Connectives)statement in the body of a speech that details what the speaker plans to discuss nextTransitions (connectives)phrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one idea and is moving on to a new oneIntroduction-catch the audiences attention -reveal the topic to the audience -establish credibility with the audience -preview the speech for the audienceConclusion-bring your speech to an end -reinforce your thesis statementPreparing a compelling Conclusion-summarize mainpoints -answer your introductory question -refer back to intro -recite a quoteLanguage is ambiguousLanguage is complex and ambiguous because of out subjective associations with the meaning of the words.Semantic triangle of Meaningsymbol: word or phrase spoken by a speaker referent: object, concept or event a symbol represents thought: memory or past experience that audience members have with an object, concept or eventLanguage and Culturepeople in different cultures have different life experiences and thus name and define words differently --idioms: fixed, distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual wordsLanguage and Genderuse gender inclusive and gender neutral languageLanguage and Public SpeakingUse cultural and gender inclusive language so that the speaker's credibility is not harmed and the audience isn't confused.Language and Imagery-simile -metaphor -personificationPersonification (Language and Imagery)figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects or conceptsMetaphor (Language and Imagery)figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something elseSimile (Language and Imagery)figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things using like or asLanguage and Rhythmrhythm: arrangement of words into patterns so the sounds of the words together enhance the meaning of a phrase --parallelism --repetition --aliteration --antithesisAntithesis (Language and Rhythm)placement of words and phrases in contrast or opposition to one anotherAliteration (Language and Rhythm)repetition of initial sounds of two or more words in a sentence or phraseRepetition (Language and Rhythm)repeating key words or phrases at the beginning or endings of a sentences or clauses to create rhythmParallelism (Language and Rhythm)arrangement of related words so they are balanced or of related sentences so they have identical structuresMethods of Delivery-extemporaneous -impromptu -manuscript -memorizedExtemporaneous speech (methods of delivery)derived from brief notes or an outlineImpromptu Speech (methods of delivery)delivered with little to no advance notice or time for preparationManuscript speech (methods of delivery)written out word for word and read aloudMemorized Speech (methods of delivery)a speech that has been written out, committed to memory and given word for wordVerbal Components of Deliveryvolume -rate -pitch and inflection -pauses -articulation -pronunciation -dialect.Non Verbal Components of Delivery-personal appearance -eye contact -facial expression -posture -gesture -proxemicsTypes of informative speeches-speeches about processes -speeches about events -speeches about places and people -speeches about objects -speeches about conceptsSpeech about processes (Types of informative speeches)informative speech that describes how something is done, how something comes to beSpeech about an event (Types of informative speeches)informative speech that describes or explains a significant, interesting or unusual occurrenceSpeech about a place or person (Types of informative speeches)informative speech that describes a significant, interesting or unusual person or placeSpeech about an object (Types of informative speeches)informative speech about anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the sensesSpeech about concept (Types of informative speeches)informative speech about an abstraction, something you can't perceive with your senses, such as an idea, a theory, a principle, a world view, or a beliefInvitational Speaking Environmentseeking to understand, respect, and appreciate the range of possible positions on an issue -Condition of equality -Condition of Value -Condition of self DeterminationCondition of equality (invitational speaking environment)acknowledges audience members hold equally valid perspectives worthy of explorationCondition of Value (invitational speaking environment)involves recognizing that audience members' own positions have merit, even if they differ from your ownCondition of Self Determination (invitational speaking environment)involves recognizing that your audience members have the right to choose what is best for them, even if those choices are not the ones you would makeUse invitational languageUsing unbiased view, and not telling them what the correct position isForms of Proof-logos: logical arrangment of evidence in a speech, 1st of Aristotle's three types of proof -ethos: speakers credibility, 2nd of Aristotle's three types of proof -pathos: emotional appeals made by a speaker, 3rd of Aristotle's three types of proofPatterns of Reasoning-inductive -deductive -causal -analogical -reasoning from signInductive reasoning (Patterns of Reasoning)a process of reasoning that uses specific instances, or examples, to make claim about a general conclusion. (Example: James is an excellent basketball player. His brother Jeff is an excellent swimmer. Their sister Julia is the star of the track team. Jenny, the youngest of the family, will be a fine athlete too.)Deductive reasoning (Patterns of Reasoning)a process of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim. (Example: Grade inflation negatively affects all college students. Jody is a college student. Jody is affected negatively by grade inflation.)Causal Reasoning (Patterns of Reasoning)a process of reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-and-effect relationship. (Example: If I don't study then i'll do poorly on my exam. If I use recreational drugs, then i'll eventually turn to more addictive ones. If I study self-defense, then i'm less likely to be hurt if someone attacks me.)Analogical Reasoning (Patterns of Reasoning)reasoning by way of comparison and similarity, implies that because two things resemble each other in one respect they also share similarities in another respect (Example: the American Academy of Pediatrics, partnering with first lady Michelle Obama, is urging its doctors to write exercise and eating "prescriptions" for their patients. "Just as we give immunizations," says AAP president Judith Palfrey, "we're going to give healthy eating and exercise advice at every visit.")Reasoning by Sign (Patterns of Reasoning)assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happenedFallacies in Reasoningfallacy: an argument that seems valid but is flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning -Ad Hominem -Bandwagon -Either Or -Hasty Generalizations -Red Herring -Slippery SlopeAd Hominem (Fallacies in Reasoning)argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than his or her argumentBandwagon (Fallacies in Reasoning)argument that suggests something has merit because everyone else agrees with it or is going itEither-Or (Fallacies in Reasoning)argument that presents only two options, "either A or B" when actually more than two options exists, also known as false dilemmaFalse Clause (Fallacies in Reasoning)argument that mistakes a chronological relationship for a causal relationshipHasty Generalizations (Fallacies in Reasoning)an argument based on too few cases or examples to support a conclusionRed Herring (Fallacies in Reasoning)introduction of irrelevant information into an argument to distract from the real issueSlippery Slope (Fallacies in Reasoning)an argument in which a speaker claims that taking a first step in one direction will inevitably lead to undesirable further stepsTypes of Persuasive Speechesspeech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience thoughts, feelings or actions -question of fact -question of value -question of policyQuestion of Fact (Types of Persuasive Speeches)whether something is verifiably true or notQuestion of Value (Types of Persuasive Speeches)question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action or beliefQuestion of Policy (Types of Persuasive Speeches)question that addresses the best course of action or solution to a problemIntroductory Speech (Types of Special Occasion Speeches)speech that provides an audience with an unique perspective on the person introduced -introducing yourself -introducing another person -be brief -be accurate -be appropriateCommemorative Speech (Types of Special Occasion Speeches)speech that praises, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, event, idea, or institution -share what unique or special -express sincere appreciation -tell the truth -speech of tribute: given to honor someone -speech of award: given to present a specific award to someone and describe why that person is receiving the awardAcceptance Speech (Types of Special Occasion Speeches)speech that expresses gratitude, appreciation and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift thank the audience and organization that has presented you with the award -show awareness of the significance of the award -acknowledge the people who helped you accomplish what you are being honored for -understand awards purpose -recognize others -respect time limitationsSpeeches to Entertain (Types of Special Occasion Speeches)lighthearted speech that addresses issues or ideas in a humorous way -entertain audience -make audience think -use humor carefully -speak about meaningful issues pay careful attention to your delivery