194 terms

Final exam APES

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Acid rain with a pH of 4.6 is more acidic than normal rainfall by a factor of
1
Which of the following regulates the flow of nitrogen into and out of its largest reservoir?
Green plants
Which of the following is the smallest reservoir of the global hydrologic cycle?
Lakes
Nitrogen fixation will take place in fields that are planted with
wheat
Why is more than 99% of the water on earth is not readily available for use as freshwater?
it is located too deep underground
It is too frozen or too salty
The goal of the second stage of waste water treatment plant is to
remove the large solid material
what organism is first to be adversely affected by thermal pollution in a stream?
insect larvae in the water
The pH value is the measure of the
concentration of hydrogen ions in the water
Whar law created the Superfund program?
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
1980
High infant mortality rates are likely to occur in countries that have
high levels of infectious disease
Composting is a process that produces
useful plastic products
What is NOT a disadvantage of old-style landfills?
They generate gases that can be recovered and used as fuels
According to the law of conservation of energy:
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted into different forms
lists the energy source from greatest to smallest percentage of total annual energy usage in the United States?
fossil fuels, nuclear energy, geothermal energy
Canada has large deposits- about 3/4 of the world's supply- of an unconventional oil known as
bitumen, or tar sands
Feedlots are damaging to the environment because of
pollution
which pollutant does not have a natural source
CFCs
Do aerosoles release methane?
No
Do dead plants release methane?
Yes
This element is the basic building block of all organic molecules.
carbon
Give an example of a density-independent population control?
earthquakes
density independent factor
limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size
The greatest amount of organic matter in the soil is found in which soil horizon?
The A horizon
soil horizon
Which of the following types of organisms are usually the first to suffer when an ecosystem is disrupted?
tertiary consumers
Does earth's core store carbon?
No
A negative effect of human interference in the nitrogen cycle is
the production of rain containing nitric acid
what human activities is most closely associated with depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer?
Disposal of refrigerators and air conditioners
An integrated pest-management approach to pest control emphasizes
Reduction of crop damage to an economically tolerable level
Of the following, which is true of noise pollution?:

Noise pollution is an insignificant occupational hazard

Noise at 100 decibels has twice the energy of noise at 50 decibels

Hearing damage occurs most quickly when the intensity level of the sound is low
In urban areas, few individuals are exposed to noise pollution

Sudden or persistent noise by lead to permanent hearing loss
Sudden or persistent noise by lead to permanent hearing loss
Overuse of groundwater in coastal areas would most likely result in
Saltwater intrusion
what country has the largest proven reserves of strategic metals such as manganese, chromium and platinum?
South Africa
What two main factors would best indicate the quality of life of a country's population?
The life expectancy and the infant mortality rate
First law of thermodynamics
In a closed system of constant mass, the energy involved in any physical or chemical change is neither created nor destroyed but merely changed from one form to another
what did Rachel Carlson do?
Increasing public awareness of the risks of using pesticides
In a typical forest ecosystem, dead trees and fallen trees are most important because of their role in
providing habitat for wildlife
Possible effects of a warmer atmosphere include which of the following? I. Expanded ranges of tropical diseases II. More intense hurricanes and typhoons III. Increased crop damage from pests and diseases *

I only
II only
III only
II and III
I, II, and III
I, II and III
a sustainable society would emphasize
using energy efficiently and reusing and recycling matter
What is a greenhouse gas that is produced by domestic livestock
CH4
what is most typically associated with the transition from a rural to urbanized society?
reduced birth rates
point source pollution
any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack

e.g Smokestack emissions from a large smelting company
The 3 main anthropogenic sources of gaseous air pollutants in the United States are
industry, transportation and energy production
Most municiple solid waste in the United States is disposed of in
sanitary landfills
Which of the following would likely reduce the threats posed by exotic species to native species? I. Increasing inspections of goods coming into the country II. Mandating that bilgewater from vessels be emptied in ports instead of in the open ocean III. Enforcing legislation that restricts imported materials such as untreated wooden packing crates *


I only
II only
III only
I and III only
I, II and III
I and III only
a measure of the amount of suspended material in water
turbidity
what are three major sources of nutrients and calories for the global human population?
Corn (maize), wheat and rice
what can be used to assess the biological diversity of an area
Genetic variation within each species and number of species present
Ground level ozone in most major United States cities results primarily from
motor-vehicle exhaust
full-cost pricing
the economic approach of including external costs in the price of goods and services

include harmful health and environmental costs of goods and services
cap and trade
A system for controlling carbon emissions with an upper limit "cap".
debt for nature
Forgiveness of international debt in exchange for nature protection in developing countries
subsidy
a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
what could encourage recycling
Decreasing taxes on recycle material
Which of the following is a true statement about passive solar heating?

It is effective only during the summer months

It is based in part on the principle of the greenhouse effect

It is not used to heat commercial buildings

It is not efficient because it cannot produce high-quality energy

It produces more pollution that heating with an electric heat pump
It is based in part on the principle of the greenhouse effect
exponential graph
linear
the four most populated countries in the world
China
US
India
Indonesia
ecological footprint
the impact of a person or community on the environment expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources
rule of 70
70 (divided by) growth rate = doubling time
more economically developed countries have
high per capita GDP
high degree of industrialization
high per capita fossil fuel use
high ecological footprint
high greenhouse emissions
high risk of heart disease



low infant mortality rate
low risk of infectious disease
less economically developed countries have
low per capita GDP
low degree of industrialization
low per capita fossil fuel use
low greenhouse emissions
low risk of heart disease

high ecological footprint
high infant mortality rate
high risk of infectious disease
renewables
wind
water
biomass
nonrenewables
coal
oil
metals
total fertility rate
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
replacement level fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
infant mortality rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
crude birth rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Tragedy of the Commons
The tendency of a shared limited resources to become depleted
positive feedback loop
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
negative feedback loop
when a system responds to a change by returning to its original state
electromagnetic radiation from lowest to highest energy
Radio, Micro, Infrared, Visible, UV, X-Ray, Gamma
Visible light from shortest to longest wavelength
violet, blue, green yellow, orange, red
e.g of organic compounds
...
3 consequences of global warming
flooding- sea levels rise

degrading food + water supplies - falling water tables, drought, wildfires etc.

spread of diseases outside normal ranges e.g malaria
how to decrease global warming
improve energy efficiency- decrease need for fossil fuel

walk or bike when possible

eat less meat- avoid methane
Humans began agriculture
12,500 years ago
four GHG's
CH4
CO2
NO
Water Vapor
Which lake has the most freshwater
Lake Baikal
particle size in order biggest to smallest
sand silt clay
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an effect of global warming?

(a) Loss of fertile delta regions for agriculture

(b) Change in global patterns of precipitation

(c) Extinction of some species that have narrow temperature requirements

(d) Decreased rate of photosynthesis in vegetation

(e) Increased frequency of hurricanes
D
Reasons that the population size of an exotic species often grows rapidly when the species is introduced in a new environment include which of the following?
I The exotic species is resistant to pesticides
II There is a large, underutilized food source in the new environment
III The exotic species has few natural predators in the new environment

(a) I only

(b) II only

(c) I and III only

(d) II and III only

(e) I, II, and III
D
environmental remediation
the removal of pollution or contaminants from the environment
CITES
A 1973 treaty formed to control the international trade of threatened plants and animals
16 Which of the following greenhouse gases has the greatest heat-trapping ability per molecule?

(a) Carbon dioxide

(b) Carbon monoxide

(c) Chlorofluorocarbon

(d) Methane

(e) Nitrous oxide
C
which layer has the good ozone and which layer has the bad ozone?
troposphere - bad
stratosphere - good
3 biotic components of an ecosystem
plants
animals
bacteria
3 abiotic components of an ecosystem
soil
water
rock
why is phosphorus important?
important nutrient for ATP and bones
formula for photosynthesis
6H₂O + 6CO₂ + Light Energy → C₆H₁₂O₆+ 6O₂
formula for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ENERGY (ATP)
generalist species
species that have broad niches, such as flies, cockroaches, raccoons, humans.
specialist species
narrow niches; more vulnerable (e.g. panda bear)
invasive species
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
endemic species
Species that is found in only one area. Such species are especially vulnerable to extinction.
keystone species
a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
indicator species
species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged
cultural eutrophication
an increase in fertility in a body of water, the result of anthropogenic inputs of nutrients
ocean acidification
when CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH

can cause coral bleaching, death of marine life, climate change etc.
montreal protocol
(1987) phase-out of ozone depleting substances
US endangered species act
(1973) designed to identify and protect endangered species in the US and abroad
BOD
biological oxygen demand

the amount of oxygen a quantity of water uses over a period of time at a specific temperature
GMO
[genetically modified organism] an organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial genes.
the first National Park
Yellowstone
Clean Air Act
(CAA, 1970) set emission standards for cars and limits for release of air pollutants
Clean Water Act
1973 law that restricted the pollution of water by industry and agriculture
Clean Drinking Water Act
...
baghouse filter
Particles are removed by a series of filter bags that physically filter out the particles

can be used for electric generation
Electrostatic precipitator
removes solid particulate matter using static charge in smokestacks (ie. coal burning power plants)
three sources of methane that are amplified but human activities
landfills
cattle farms
natural gas - petroleum emissions
catalytic converter
a device that reduces carbon monoxide emissions from vehicles.
k-selected species
possess relatively stable populations and tend to produce relatively low numbers of offspring
r-selected species generalist niche
many offspring; few of which survive
generalist niche
generalists are adaptable species, in less danger of extinction
ex. flies, rats, cockroaches
Lacey Act
...
dredging
making a river deeper or wider by digging up sand and mud from the bottom

used to harvest shrimp, scallops and crabs from the sea floor
long-line fishing
Fishing by dragging extremely long lines with baited hooks spaced along their lengths
which is produced more globally corn rice or wheat
1 Corn 2 Wheat 3 Rice
anemia
iron deficiency
biomagnification
buildup of pollutants at higher levels of the food chain
DDT
an insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans because it alters metabolism
gray water
wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines
turbidity
A measure of how clear water is.
crude oil
petroleum that has not been processed
air pollutants that are emitted during the burning of coal
CO2 SO2, NOx Mercury
Radon
formed naturally through the radioactive decay of uranium
acid rain
Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air.
open-pit mining
a mining technique that uses a large pit or hole in the ground, visible from the surface of Earth

can cause habitat destruction, acid mine drainage, runoff
subsurface mining
Extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit.

can cause cave ins, explosions, fires, black lung
strip mining
layers of surface soil and rock are removed from large areas to expose the resource

leaves a series or spoil banks, promotes erosion acid mine drainage
mountaintop removal
a mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives

waste rock can destroy forest, buries streams, toxic mining materials like arsenic and mercury can overflow, disrupts groundwatter
drilling
The process of obtaining materials by pumping them through holes drilled into the earth.
Three Mile Island
The location of a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania where there was a radiation leak in 1979
pH of blood
7.35-7.45
pH of a lemon
2
pH of rain
5.6
pH of calcium
10
pH of ammonia
10.5-11.5
pH of acid rain
4.0
hydroponics
the method of growing plants in a solution of nutrients instead of in soil
watershed
An ecosystem where all water runoff drains into a single body of water
wetland
an area of land that is periodically underwater or whose soil contains a great deal of moisture
estuary
the wide part of a river where it nears the sea
hazardous
poisonous, corrosive, chemically reactive, flammable
chemical formula for acid rain
SO3 + H2O -> H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

NO2 + H2O -> HNO3 (nitric acid)
radon
a colorless, highly toxic radioactive gas
carbon monoxide
Colorless, odorless, poisounous gas produced by the combustion of of carbon or organic fuels. comes from motor vehicle exhaust
health effects of lead
can cause blindness, mental retardation, paralysis etc.
green revolution
introduction of intensive farming practices that lead to a substantial increase in crop yields
earth's layers
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
lithosphere
Earth's crust and solid upper mantle, broken into tectonic plates
mesosphere
the strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core

in the sky its the coldest layer
asthenosphere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
commensalism
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying compound in erythrocytes
photovoltaic cells
convert sunlight energy to electrical energy
salinity
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
ozone absorbs
UV radiation
teratogen
an environmental factor that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development
carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance
neurotoxins
Chemicals that affect the nervous system
threshold level
level below which harmful effects are insignificant or not observable
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
pathogen
disease-causing agent
second law of thermodynamics
energy used is transformed into heat
divergent
variant, moving apart
convergent
coming together
transform
when two tectonic plates slide past each other.
overburden
rock or soil overlying a mineral deposit, archaeological site, or other underground feature.
counter strip mining
clean out the bed of (a harbor, river, or other area of water) by scooping out mud, weeds, and rubbish with a dredge.
where most methane is
alaska
catatlytic converter reduce which pollutants
CO and hydrocarbons
fuel cell
an electrical-chemical device that converts fuel, such as hydrogen, into an electrical current
when you see limestone think
calcium
which soil composition would be the best choice for lining a landfill
clay because it is not permeable

sand has the HIGHEST permeability
Ogallala Aquifer
These porous rocks contain the largest freshwater supply in North America (midwest)
in the US
is batteries, bug spray, motor oil, oil-based paint or food scraps an household item?
food scraps
pesticides, herbicides is an
endocrine disruptor
growth rate
hardness
related calcium
what us a acid neutralizer
limestone
net primary productivity
the energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire
NOX and hydrocarbons make
Ozone
negative externalities
by-products of production or consumption that impose costs on third parties
preindustrial to industrial state
pop increases rapidly, birth rates remain high, death rate increases
T or F?

Nitrous Oxide is produced by rush-hour traffic which is oxidized into the atmosph.
True
when you see "photo-" think
light
eutrophication
rapid growth of algae in bodies of water, due to high levels of nitrogen and often phosphate

means there wont be much oxygen
carbon sink
anything that absorbs more carbon that it releases

forest, oceans
nitrogen pollution
vehicle exhaust, commercial fertilizer, industrial air pollution and discharge of sewage to surface water
phosphorus causes
algae bloom
contour strip mining
Contour strip mining is used mostly to mine coal on hilly or mountainous terrain.