Ivan Iv (Ivan the Terrible)
set up secret police, the most powerful of the early czars. Learned, religious, and cruel. Saw treason everywhere and arrested, exiled, or excecuted many advisors, reduced boyars power, increased Russia's trade with western Europe and worked to expand borders, conquered Mongul lands to the east and south of Moscow
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
this dynasty favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church.
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
Partition of Poland
division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions