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Chapter 2 section 1-3 notes for S.S

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what percent of the earth is covered with water?
70% of the earth is covered with water
Does the amount of water change on the Earth?
The amount of water does not change- its form does
what percent of the water found on the Earth is fresh?
2% is freshwater
Is most of the water frozen?
yes mostlty in glaciers
To understand an area's climate, what does a scientist have to do?
A scientist looks at extremes of temperature and precipitation to understand an area's climate.
what is the original source of climate?
the sun
what do wind and water carry?
they carry the sun's heat around the globe
What else affects a place's climate?
A place's climate is also affected by its latitude. Lower latitudes get more direct sunlight and higher latitudes recieve angled rays of sulight.
what are areas near the equator known as?
the tropics. (between the Tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn). tropics have a hot climate year-round.
What are movements of air called?
winds and they follow the typical patterns affecting climate
what are monsoons?
seasonal winds\rain that last for months at a time. Found mainly in Asia and some areas in Africa.
What form thunderstorms?
tornadoes or funnel shaped windstorms
hurricanes form in the Atlantic, what same type of storm is formed in Asia?
a typhoon
Where do El Nino and La Nina form?
in the Pacific
what do currents affect?
they affect the climate of land areas. Winds over warm water carry warm air to land areas.
shape of the land, location of landforms in relation to one another and to water affect what?
climate
is higher elavation hotter or cooler?
cooler
as air goes up the windward side of the mountain peaks what happens?
the air becomes cool and loses its moisture
air that goes over the peak is what?
dry air
the leeward side is what?
dry
when does the air finally warm up?
as it moves down mountain sides, giving the region a dry or desert climate
how do the actions of people affect climate?
because buildings absorb more heat than plants and trees
which are warmer cities or rural areas?
cities
what does burning of fuel do?
affect the climate
the buildup of gases prevents something, what?
warm air from rising and escaping into the atmosphere-greenhouse effect
do rain forest recieve a high amount of rain?
yes
what happened because of the destruction of rain forests?
the greenhouse effect
what are the tropical climates?
tropical rain forest and tropical savanna
what is the drifference between the tropical climates?
the tropical rain forest has rain year round rains and the vegetation is thick and green, but the tropical savanna has a wet season and the rest of the year is hot and dry. Savannas have only a few trees and a broad grassland.
what are the mid-latitude climates?
marine west coast climate, Mediterranean climate, humid continental climate, and humid subtropical climate
why does the mid-latitude climate have more and different climate zones?
due to warm air from the tropics and cool air from the polar regions
what climate does the marine west coast have?
it occurs along coastal areas that recieve winds from the ocean. Rainy winters and cool summers. Trees are decidious and coniferous.
what climate does the meditteranean climate have?
rainy, mild winters and hot dry summers. Shrubs and short trees grow in this climate
what climate does the humid continental climate have?
occurs in the inland areas of North America, Europe, and Asia. Winters can be long, cold, and snowy. Summers are short and may be very hot. Decidiuos trees and vast grasslands.
What climate does the humid subtropical have?
regions close to the Tropics. Rainfall throughout the year. Trees- oak, magnolia, and palm.
What are the different climate zones in the high latitude climate?
subartic climate ice cap climate and tundra climate
what climate does the subartic climate have?
winters are very cold and bitter. huge evergreen forests calles taiga grow here
what climate does the tundra have?
it is close to the poles and has vast rolling plains without trees. it is harsh and dry. the lower layers of the soil stay permanently frozen-permafrost. only sturdy grasses and low berry bushes grow here.
What climate does the ice cap climate have?
at the poles, ice sheets of Antartica and Greenland. No vegetations grow here