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World History Chapters 6 -11
Terms in this set (58)
Shepard Kings; introduced warfare transportation--The chariot, Example: Joseph in Bible was probably a Hyksos. They specifically taught the Egyptians how to use excellent bronze weapons, compound bows, and horse-drawn chariot during wars. At some point, these kings ruled Egypt. At one point, they captured Egypt. Helped preserve Egyptian history by appointing scribes to make copies of Egyptian documents
Worship of One God; Earl Our Worship of Almighty GOD is an example of Monotheism, The Muslim worship Mohammed-- another example of Monotheism. Other religions Hinduism believe in many gods.
A Greek magistrate. The Athenians granted a magistrate named Solon emergency powers to address the problem of debt and the enslavement of citizens, a process he began in 594 bce. Solon examined the question of economic and political stability. He cancelled people's debt and reclassified citizens based on income
The Delian League was an association of approximately 150 5th-century BCE Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Founded in 478 BCE, the League's name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BCE. Shortly after its inception Athens began to exploit the League's navy for its own benefit. This behaviour would frequently lead to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the League. By 431 BCE Athens' heavy-handed control of the Delian League would prompt the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War; the League was dissolved upon the war's conclusion in 404 BCE
More Hyksos info
Around 1700 BCE an outside nation, known as the Hyksos, invaded Egypt and slowly took control both militarily and politically. The Hyksos people introduced to Egyptians the horse, chariot and modern Bronze Age weapons. The chariot developed around 2000 BCE, and the Indo-Iranians were the first to use a chariot similar to those of the Hyksos—"light, two wheeled and spoked." Use of the chariot spread through trade, travel, conquest, and migration. The Hyksos began their invasion of Egypt around 1720 BCE during the Middle Kingdom (2040 to 1645 BCE). The Middle Kingdom was weakening both militarily and politically, and the army was incapable of protecting itself from outside attacks. The Hyksos invasion was not a single military event, for it was some fifty years before the Hyksos established absolute control over Egypt. However, there is no doubt that their military superiority was a major factor in their takeover.
Student of Socrates. Plato (428/427 - 348/347 BCE) is considered the pre-eminent Greek philosopher, known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy north of Athens, traditionally considered the first university in the western world. The Dialogues of Plato universally concern themselves with the quest for Truth and the understanding of what is Good. Plato contended that there was one universal truth which a human being needed to recognize and strive to live in accordance with. This truth, he claimed, was embodied in the realm of Forms. Plato's Theory of Forms states, simply put, that there exists a higher realm of truth and that our perceived world of the senses is merely a reflection of the greater one
Stoicism is the belief that the individual is wholly responsible for his or her interpretations of circumstance and that all of life is natural and normal in spite of one's impressions. To the Stoics, `philosophy' was synonymous with life. Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. A person who accepts what happens without complaining or showing emotion
They constituted Rome's original citizen families,A Patrician was a wealthy upper class citizen of the Roman Republic. From the Latin pater ("father") the term was originally used to describe the earliest Senators of the Republic, who were the elite Roman citizens. The aristo
Emperor of Rome
Founded by Mani A religion that combined everything together Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century. It purported to be the true synthesis of all the religious systems then known, and actually consisted of Zoroastrian Dualism, Babylonian folklore, Buddhist ethics, and some small and superficial, additions of Christian elements.Thus, Manichaeism, depending on the context, resembles Iranian and Indian religions, Christianity, Buddhism, and Taoism.
At its core, Manichaeism was a type of Gnosticism—a dualistic religion that offered salvation through special knowledge (gnosis) of spiritual truth. Like all forms of Gnosticism, Manichaeism taught that life in this world is unbearably painful and radically evil.
31 BCE - 180 CE Brought on by Augustus, State of peacefulness and prosperity in the Roman Empire. Stability
Roman poet who tried to create a patriotic epic called Virgil's Aeneid. The Aeneid described the establishment of Rome as a product of a divine plan, made the Romans the heirs of Troy, and transformed Augustus from a mere human into the scion of lineage, in other words the genius ( guardian spirit) of Rome. The Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and arrive on the shores of Italy—in Roman mythology the founding act of Rome.
The City of the Gods") the most important and largest city of pre-Aztec central Mexico, located about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of modern Mexico City. At its apogee (c. ad 500), it encompassed some 8 square miles (20 square km) and supported a population estimated at 125,000-200,000, making it, at the time, one of the largest cities in the world. It was the region's major economic as well as religious centre. It appears from the archeological record that the people of Teotihuacán dominated central Mexico through trade, religious ceremonies, and resource development.
Knossos, also spelled Cnossus, city in ancient Crete, capital of the legendary king Minos, and the principal centre of the Minoan, the earliest of the Aegean civilizations (see Minoan civilization).
Greek lawgiver. (flourished 7th century bc), Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death—hence the continued use of the word draconian to describe repressive legal measures.
(431-404 bc), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. Each stood at the head of alliances that, between them, included nearly every Greek city-state. The fighting engulfed virtually the entire Greek world, and it was properly regarded by Thucydides, whose contemporary account of it is considered to be among the world's finest works of history, as the most momentous war up to that time.
Greek philospher (born 384 bce, Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died 322, Chalcis, Euboea), ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. All of these epithets are apt in that Aristotle wrote on, and was considered a master in, disciplines as diverse as biology, politics, metaphysics, agriculture, literature, botany, medicine, mathematics, physics, ethics, logic, and the theatre. He is traditionally linked in sequence with Socrates and Plato in the triad of the three greatest Greek philosophers.
member of the general citizenry in ancient Rome as opposed to the privileged patrician class. Ordinary Roman citizen as compared to Patricians who were the wealthy and powerful Roman citizens.
Good Roman emperor
Tried to improve the lives of Roman citizens
Germans invaded Rome. He was a skillful and competent General
best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Marcus Aurelius has symbolized for many generations in the West the Golden Age of the Roman Empire.
Diocletian, Latin in full Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, original name Diocles (born 245 ce, Salonae?, Dalmatia [now Solin, Croatia]—died 316, Salonae), Roman emperor (284-305 ce), who restored efficient government to the empire after the near anarchy of the 3rd century. His reorganization of the fiscal, administrative, and military machinery of the empire laid the foundation for the Byzantine Empire in the East and temporarily shored up the decaying empire in the West. His reign is also noted for the last great persecution of the Christians.
The Gupta Empire is thought to have been founded by one Sri Gupta (`Sri' means `Lord') who probably ruled between 240-280 CE. As Sri Gupta is thought to have been of the Vaishya (merchant) class, his rise to power in defiance of the caste system is unprecedented. He laid the foundation for the government which would so stabilize India that virtually every aspect of culture reached its height under the reign of the Guptas. Philosophy, literature, science, mathematics, architecture, astronomy, technology, art, engineering, religion, and astronomy, among other fields, all flourished during this period, resulting in some of the greatest of human achievements.The Gupta era produced the decimal system of notation and great Sanskrit epics and Hindu art and contributed to the sciences of astronomy, mathematics, and metallurgy.
Mongols (Also called Huns)
The Mongols were pagan, horse-riding tribes of the northeastern steppes of Central Asia. In the early 13th century, under the leadership of Genghis Khan, they formed, led, and gave their name to a confederation of Turkic tribes that they channeled into a movement of global expansion, spreading east into China, north into Russia, and west into Islamdom.
They helped bring down Rome. They drove Germans to Rome where fighting between Germans and Romans began. Mongols were strong military fighters.
The Maya lived throughout an extensive region comprising southeastern MexicoThey practiced agriculture, built great stone buildings and pyramid temples, worked gold and copper, and used a form of hieroglyphic writing that has now largely been deciphered.
member of an ancient Indo-European people who appeared in Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium bc; by 1340 bc they had become one of the dominant powers of the Middle East.
Credited to developing a technique to make iron tools. The complicated technique for making iron tools has been credited to the Hittites, a nomadic people who conquered Anatolia in 1600 bce and subjugated the local population.
Greece was in a chaotic mess. He, a wealthy aristocrat, used this chaos to bring order to Greece. He brought three groups of Greece together. If one failed, they all failed. Kleisthenes thus successfully unified the occupational elements of the city into a common interest group. Some the generals was made. They wanted to lead. But, Kleisthenes created ostracisim. If anyone started mess or confusion, including the generals, they were exiled.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia (born 356 bce, Pella, Macedonia—died June 13, 323 bce, Babylon), king of Macedonia (336-323 bce). He overthrew the Persian empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms.
Great general under Alexander the Great. After Alexander the Great died, his generals divided his territories. Ptolemy took over Egypt and Palestine, and established the the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra was an heir of Ptolemy
The one thing the Persians were noted for was their use of cavalry; these forces were fast enough to redefine warfare, provided the right tactics could be devised to deal with the phalanx. The Parthians eventually developed such tactics and ushered in a new military era in world history. This was the principal military lesson that diffused east during the Hellenistic era.
Created a personal tax system. So, calvary could afford to learn to fight because they still had money coming in for the family
Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar (born July 12/13, 100? bc, Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bc, Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58-50 bc), victor in the Civil War of 49-45 bc, and dictator (46-44 bc), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. Lover of Cleopatra
Christian bishop and theologianSaint Augustine, also called Saint Augustine of Hippo, original Latin name Aurelius Augustinus (born Nov. 13, 354, Tagaste, Numidia [now Souk Ahras, Algeria]—died Aug. 28, 430, Hippo Regius [now Annaba, Algeria]), feast day August 28, bishop of Hippo from 396 to 430, one of the Latin Fathers of the Church, one of the Doctors of the Church, and perhaps the most significant Christian thinker after St. Paul. Augustine's adaptation of classical thought to Christian teaching created a theological system of great power and lasting influence.Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430 CE) most famous for his work Confessions and his City of God, is regarded as one of the Fathers of The Church in the tradition of Catholicism. In this brief essay from his The Literal Meaning of Genesis, Augustine denounces Christians who speak on subjects they know little or nothing about in an attempt to appear `wise' among non-Christians.
Byzntine emperor Justinian I, Latin in full Flavius Justinianus, original name Petrus Sabbatius (born 483, Tauresium, Dardania [probably near modern Skopje, Macedonia]—died November 14, 565, Constantinople [now Istanbul, Turkey]), Byzantine emperor (527-565), noted for his administrative reorganization of the imperial government and for his sponsorship of a codification of laws known as the Codex Justinianus Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law"), the collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from ad 529 to 565.
Pyrrhus-- Correct (not Phyrrus) They are the same person.
King of Epirus (born 319 bce—died 272, Argos, Argolis), king of Hellenistic Epirus whose costly military successes against Macedonia and Rome gave rise to the phrase "Pyrrhic victory." His Memoirs and books on the art of war were quoted and praised by many ancient authors, including Cicero.
member of a nomadic tribes whose people were wanderers pastoralist people who invaded southeastern Europe c. ad 370 and during the next seven decades built up an enormous empire there and in central Europe. The Huns were a group of nomadic people who first appeared in Europe from east of the Volga River. They were famous for mounted archery from a horse. They fought people and pushed them toward the Roman Empire. Because they did were wandering people, they kept moving westward, this pushed other people to the Roman Empire who needed Rome's protection. They kept pushing more and more people toward Rome. Since Rome had to protect, them this drained the nation's money and resources. How could they feed and care for all this additional people (The Great Migration). This they might have helped bring down the Roman Empire.
They lived about 2,000 miles along the north-south axis of South America. They were highly developed. They worked with agriculture (crops and animals). They learned to work with soft metals like, gold, silver, and tin
Ancient region in Asias an ancient civilization comprised of independent city-states which lay along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea stretching through what is now Syria, Lebannon and northern Israel. The Phoenicians were a great maritime people (boat and ship people; they loved the water}, known for their mighty ships adorned with horses' heads in honor of their god of the sea, Yamm, the brother of Mot, the god of death.
Alexander the Great conquered Phoenicia and siegedTyre. It was a brutal siege.
Sparta was one of the most important Greek city-states throughout the Archaic and Classical periods and was famous for its military prowess. The professional and well-trained Spartan hoplites with their distinctive red cloaks, long hair, and lambda-emblazoned shields were probably the best and most feared fighters in Greece, fighting with distinction at such key battles as Thermopylae and Plataea in the early 5th century BCE. The city was also in constant rivalry with the other major Greek cities of Athens and Corinth and became involved in two protracted and hugely damaging conflicts, the Peloponnesian Wars of the mid- to late 5th century BCE and the Corinthian Wars of in the early 4th century BCE.
Known for good Fighters
Greek Philosopher (born c. 470 bce, Athens [Greece]—died 399 bce, Athens), Greek philosopher whose way of life, character, and thought exerted a profound influence on ancient and modern philosophy.
Socrates (469/470-399 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and is considered the father of western philosophy. Plato was his most famous student and would teach Aristotle who would then tutor Alexander the Great. By this progression, Greek philosophy, as first developed by Socrates, was spread throughout the known world during Alexander's conquests.
Seleucus I Nicator I(born c. 358 bc, Europus, Macedonia—died August/September 281, near Lysimachia, Thrace), Macedonian army officer, founder of the Seleucid kingdom. In the struggles following the death of Alexander the Great, he rose from governor of Babylon to king of an empire centering on Syria and Iran.
After Alexander the Great's death, he went from Governor of Babylon to King of Seleucid. He was founder of Seleucid Kingdom
The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and Rome between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to the citizens of Carthage, who were of Phoenician ethnicity. As the history of the conflict was written by Roman authors, they labeled it 'The Punic Wars'.
There were three (3) Punic Wars ( 264- 241 bce, 218- 202 bce, and 149- 146 bce).
First Roman Emperor Augustus, also called Augustus Caesar or (until 27 bce) Octavian, original name Gaius Octavius, adopted name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (born Sept. 23, 63 bce—died Aug. 19, 14 ce, Nola, near Naples [Italy]), first Roman emperor, following the republic, which had been finally destroyed by the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, his great-uncle and adoptive father. His autocratic regime is known as the principate because he was the princeps, the first citizen, at the head of that array of outwardly revived republican institutions that alone made his autocracy palatable.
How did Augustus govern? This was called his principate. In Augustus' case they reveal a regime that was outwardly constitutional, generally moderate, and certainly effective. But, as he himself implied at the end of his life, he was a skillful actor in life's comedy
Council of Nicaea
Council of Nicaea, Constantine I: marble head [Credit: The Granger Collection, New York](325), the first ecumenical council of the Christian church, meeting in ancient Nicaea (now İznik, Tur.). It was called by the emperor Constantine I, an unbaptized catechumen, or neophyte, who presided over the opening session and took part in the discussions. He hoped a general council of the church would solve the problem created in the Eastern church by Arianism, a heresy first proposed by Arius of Alexandria that affirmed that Christ is not divine but a created being. Pope Sylvester I did not attend the council but was represented by legates.
Church councils. Say Mt. Zion belonged to Baptist Church Conference. Baptist Church Conference could make rules for all its memebers. In later centuries the word ecumenical was used to denote church councils (e.g., Nicaea, Chalcedon) whose decisions represented the universal church, in contrast to other councils that enjoyed only regional or limited reception
Nike Rebellion or Nika riots
The Nika riots last a week in Constantinople (Byzantine City) during the reign of Justinian I. The disturbance caused the destruction of much of the central city area and was quelled after a significant loss of life. Thousands of people lost their lives.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, byname Cunctator (died 203 bc), Roman commander and statesman whose cautious delaying tactics (whence the nickname Cunctator, meaning "delayer," which was not his official cognomen) during the early stages of the Second Punic War (218-201) gave Rome time to recover its strength and take the offensive against the invading Carthaginian army of Hannibal. Fabianism has come to mean a gradual or cautious policy.
Because of his delay, Rome gave strength in the Second Punic War
He was a Hun. Attila, byname Flagellum Dei (Latin: Scourge of God) (died 453), king of the Huns from 434 to 453 (ruling jointly with his elder brother Bleda until 445). He was one of the greatest of the barbarian rulers who assailed the Roman Empire, invading the southern Balkan provinces and Greece and then Gaul and Italy
cassava (Manihot esculenta), also called manioc, mandioc or yuca, It is cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and even an alcoholic beverage are derived. Cassava probably was first cultivated by the Maya in Yucatán. Food cultivated in South America. Cassava was an important staple (or main food like potatoes and rice is today) for the Mayans.
The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the late Bronze Age, from the 15th to the 13th century BCE and extended its influence not only throughout the Peloponnese in Greece but also across the Aegean, in particular, on Crete and the Cycladic islands.
Known for making beautiful pottery.
3 Orders of Greek Architecture
Of the five orders of classical architecture, Greek architectures are responsible for 3. The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
What is a order? You put a certain type of column with a base.
Doric This was a vertical fluted column shaft, thinner at its top, with no base and a simple capital below a square abacus. The Ionic order, with origins in mid-6th century BCE Asia Minor, added a base and volute, or scroll capital, to a slimmer, straighter column. The Corinthian column, invented in Athens in the 5th century BCE, is similar to the Ionic but topped by a more decorative capital of stylized acanthus and fern leaves. These orders became the basic grammar of western architecture and it is difficult to walk in any modern city and not see examples of them in one form or another.
Herodotus (c.484 - 425/413 BCE) was a writer who invented the field of study known today as `history'. He's been called the "Father of History". He was called `The Father of History' by the Roman writer and orator Cicero for his famous work The Histories but has also been called "The Father of Lies" by critics who claim these `histories' are little more than tall tales.
Epicureanism, in a strict sense, the philosophy taught by Epicurus (341-270 bce). In ancient polemics, as often since, the term was employed with an even more generic (and clearly erroneous) meaning as the equivalent of hedonism, the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the chief good. , the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the chief good. In popular parlance, Epicureanism thus means devotion to pleasure, comfort, and high living, with a certain nicety of style.
Eat, drink, and Be happy because tomorrow we may die.
Great Carthaginian general. Hannibal, (born 247 bce, North Africa—died c. 183-181 bce, Libyssa, Bithynia [near Gebze, Turkey]), Carthaginian general, one of the great military leaders of antiquity, who commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome in the Second Punic War.
1st and 2nd Triumvirates
The First Triumvirate (not approved by the government) was the political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Unlike the Second Triumvirate (approved by the government).
The First Triumvirate had no official status whatsoever; its overwhelming power in the Roman Republic was strictly unofficial influence, and was in fact kept secret for some time as part of the political machinations of the Triumvirs themselves. It was formed in 60 BC and lasted until Crassus' death in 53 BC.
Saul of Tarsus (Paul) of the Bible
Christian Apostle Saint Paul, the Apostle, original name Saul of Tarsus (born 4 bc?, Tarsus in Cilicia [now in Turkey]—died c. ad 62-64, Rome [Italy]), one of the leaders of the first generation of Christians, often considered to be the second most important person in the history of Christianity. Wrote many books in the New Testament. Paul - Romans, 1st Corinthians, 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1st Thessalonians and Philemon, 1 and 2 Timothy, Ephesians, and Titus.
Constantine I, byname Constantine the Great, Latin in full Flavius Valerius Constantinus (born February 27, after ad 280?, Naissus, Moesia [now Niš, Serbia]—died May 22, 337, Ancyrona, near Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Turkey]), the first Roman emperor to profess Christianity. He not only initiated the evolution of the empire into a Christian state but also provided the impulse for a distinctively Christian culture that prepared the way for the growth of Byzantine and Western medieval culture.
First Roman Emperor to profess that he was a Christian.
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, (born 519?, bc), Roman statesman who gained fame for his selfless devotion to the republic in times of crisis and for giving up the reins of power when the crisis was over.
Olmec, the first elaborate pre-Columbian civilization of Mesoamerica (c. 1200-400 bce) and one that is thought to have set many of the fundamental patterns evinced by later American Indian cultures of Mexico and Central America, notably the Maya and the Aztec. The Nahuatl (Aztec) name for these people, Olmecatl, or Olmec in the modern corruption, means "rubber people" or "people of the rubber country." That term was chosen because they extracted latex from rubber trees (Castilla elastica) growing in the region and mixed it with the juice of a local vine (Ipomoea alba) to create rubber.
Credited for creating rubber from juice of rubber trees.
Chimu (South American people)
The Chimú constructed cities and developed large-scale irrigation systems. They developed intensive farming techniques and hydraulic work, which joined valleys to form complexes, such as the Chicama-Moche complex, which was a combination of two valleys in La LibertadChimú culture was based on agriculture, aided by immense works of irrigation engineering. They did excellent work in textiles and in gold, silver, and copper. Pottery types tended to be standardized, with quantity production, made in molds, and generally of a plain black ware.
Had a good political system. They developed roads. They developed irrigations system for farmers.
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