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test 4; theory of mind
Terms in this set (27)
ability to understand that ones thoughts and beliefs are separate from and not identical and accessible to another thoughts and beliefs
theory of mind
egocentric perspective develops at age _____ in humans
children at age4 and 5 are successful at _____ task
adults can have ranging abilities in ToM because of?
-autism, bilinguals, and violent sex offenders
"what is in this box" child: smarties. experimenter shows whats inside and its a ribbon then asks what susie will think is in this box. Children under 3 would say?
Sally ann task moving ball showed
children older than 4 and 5 understand where to look
Premack and Guy conducted the first study of ToM in animals and asked what?
does the chimp understand humans theory of mind
premark and guy simple version
Kholer like problem; banana is out of reach and put behind box
premark and guy complex version
human locked in cage clearly showing to be stuck in a dilemma and chimp had to correctly chose the photo with the right solution to get the human out
premark and guy study actually measures _____ instead off ToM
understanding of human goals or social learning
other methods used to prove ToM; subjects chose between two containers that might hide food; original task included a cooperative partner
object choice task
in object task, the companion is a _____ who points towards the food biased container
results of object choice task
at first the container choice seems random but with time chimp rely on cooperating human
who is able to solve object choice task right away?
dogs and other domesticated animals
why do you think dogs can do this task easily?
domestication, raised in human environment, bread and selected because of these qualities
chimps are more socially _____ than cooperative
Povinelli came up with what?
modified object choice task
experimenters used a begging paradigm which capitalized on chimps tendency to beg from humans
modified object choice task
experimental test for modified choice task probe:
both experimenters are present but the positions of the location of the objects prevents one but not the other from seeing the chimps ex: blindfold, buckets, screen
results of modified choice task
chimps likely to beg from either person and only condition where chimps initially succeeded was front/back
what did modified choice task show?
chimps either can't or dont use visual perspective taking when cooperating with a human and this lacks ecological validity
people said that _____ was unnatural for chimps
overall what did the Povinelli study show?
chimps can learn to beg but doesn't prove ToM
Hare, Call,Tomaselo designed a social problem solving task (sally ann task for chimps) that chimps competed for food. one chimp was _____ one was _____
subordinate always has visual access to food and experimenters varied whether dominant could see the food or not. ex 1: did she see it hidden or moved?
sub chimp retrieved a greater percent of food when dominant didn't know where it was at and chose not to approach the food in the control group
ex 2 results with sub and dominant chimps; ex 2: who saw it hidden.
sub chimp retrieved more food when it was switched dominant uniformed compared to same dominant informed
ex 3 results; ex 3: which piece of food did she see hidden? what happened
sub only acted different in condition where the dominant has seen both pieces of food baited
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