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PLSC 300C: Second Half
Terms in this set (59)
Who is Fanon?
Notably important for his theory linking decolonization with violence
What are the three stages of colonial violence?
▸First, colonial violence aims to keep men enslaved at a respectful distance and to dehumanize them
▸Second, new generations witness the suffering of their parents. When it is their turn to be "broken in," they develop their own language of violence
▸Third, "the age of the boomerang," violence flies right back. The colonized adopt the same violence
The violence of the colonizer
Violence is Enslaving
▸Violence is Dehumanizing
▸Violence demolishes traditions
▸Violence is servitude
The violence of the colonized
▸Violence is Unifying
▸Violence is Cleansing
▸Violence develops leaders
▸Violence is eminent
What is "double consciousness"?
Having two identities, like being jewish but also American
What is Said's theory?
Examines the roots of imperialism in Western culture and traces the relationship between culture and imperialism
Eugenics and the foundation of racism
What types of psychological disorders does colonialism produce?
What is Orientalism?
the Eurocentric vision of "the East" as one of "backwardness"
▹Inherently recognized by its "Otherness"
What is "inversion"
will ultimately destroy the identity of the colonized; violence creates a fictitious identity ultimately molded by the colonizer's violence
What is Gaventa known for?
◈Theory of Social Movement
◈Democratic theory and the notion of "social stability"
How is power used in conflict?
It is shaped to contain it
Three Dimensions of the Power of Power
Observable power asymmetry
More political resources
B. Second Dimension
Mobilization of Bias
Force, Sanctions, co-optation, symbolization, any mechanism that prevents issues from entering the decision making arena
C. Third Dimension
Often unobservable socialization processes
Response to defeat, lack of political learning
Timeline of Colonial Repression:
Colonizer prevails over the colonized in the allocation of resources
Establishment of institutions and organizational forms based on this
Relationship is accepted and legitimized by the colonized
What was old Jim Crow?
A legal caste system primarily in the south, sought segregation as separate but equal. These was institutionalized by literacy tests, property tests, and the Grandfather clause
What is new Jim Crow?
Largely motivated by the US war on drugs, non-violent offenders left as second class citizens, denied rights won in the civil rights movement
What is structural violence?
The violence of poverty, hunger, social exclusion, humiliation, and powerlessness that is responsible for more death and destruction than direct violence. It is systemic. There are natural connections to direct violence.
Who wrote Letter from Birmingham jail?
What was included in the letter from B. Jail?
Included sacred values such as religion, nationalism and law
Two types of laws: just and unjust
Injustice somewhere is injustice everywhere
King details a strategy of direct action
What was James C Scott known for?
Domination and the art of resistance
What is the hidden transcript?
A hidden language used by both the powerful and the powerless to maintain practices and claims to rule and critique power
The public transcript?
an outward language used by both powerful and powerless to disguise the reality of asymmetric power relations and inequality
What is the dominant assumption?
It naturalizes the power of the elite
Elementary forms of disguise:
Euphemism, anonymity, and grumbling
Elaborate forms of disguise:
oral/folk culture, symbolic inversion, rituals of reversal
What is counterinsurgency?
An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict
Goals in Counterinsurgency?
end violence and reestablish effective control over a state and its population: victory cannot be found in violence, protection of civilians in imperative
Three pillars of Counterinsurgency:
The base is information, the three pillars are security, political, and economic and the roof is control. ALL THREE PILLARS ARE EQUAL.
What is the 21st century security mentality?
multiple insurgent groups, global terrorist networks, new technology in communications and social media
What are definitions of terrorism?
many, ambiguous, incoherent, matter of perception and they range in areas of discourse in the government, media, academy, and public
What are conceptual issues of terrorism?
"border problems", "membership problems", stretching problem, traveling problem
10 Characteristics of terrorism:
Use of violence against humans
Threat of further violence
Deliberate production of fear in a target group
Frequent targeting of civilians
Purpose is intimidation
Act is communicated to a wider audience
The act is illegal, criminal, and immoral
Predominantly political in character
Used as a tool of psychological warfare
Strategy of conflict waging
Global terrorism database criteria:
The act must be aimed at attaining a political, economic, religious, or social goal
There must be evidence to convey a message to a larger audience rather than immediate victims
The action must be outside of the context of legitimate warfare activities
What is Crenshaw known for?
Being the pioneer of terrorism theory (go girls)
Crenshaw's strategic model:
Collective and Individual Rationality
Political behavior and strategic and strategic thinking: terrorism is a deliberate choice of a rational actor
Model is a standard not a law
Not all groups have to conform to this assumption
Levels of Analysis: Setting, Motivation, rationale
6 reasons for terrorism:
Weapon of the week
LAST RESORT: typically, terrorism follows the failure of other methods
What are the settings for terrorism?
Preconditions: permissive factors and enabling factors
Precipitants: Specific events that immediately precede the occurrence of terrorism
Permissive preconditions: modernization, urbanization, social facilitation, government leeway
Enabling preconditions: Grievances that are social, economical, and political (think Ted Gurr!)
Precipitating Events: A event that immediately precedes the outbreak of terrorism (a catalyst)
Proximate objectives: the reactions or goals that terrorists want to achieve
What is the individual rationale of terrorism?
No coherent profile
Normality: often the only thing that binds individuals together by common thread
Guilt, vengeance and retribution
What is james Fearon known for?
Strategies of terrorism
What are the strategies of terrorism?
The logic of terrorism is costly signaling
They want to resolve uncertainty
War of attrition
What are two reasons for spoiling?
2 reasons for spoiling is wanting a seat at the table or did not find an already pleasing outcome
What makes violence political?
What are the roles of civilians in counterinsurgency?
they mobilize, they die, their deaths often promote more conflict, they are seen as collateral damage
True/False: No set of attributes to be able to tell if someone will be a terrorist?
is maddie awesome for making this quizlet
What is an example of structural violence?
Social exclusion, sexism, poverty, racism
What famous concept describes the uncertainty of decision making?
The fog of war
What is the continuum of violence?
violence gives birth and mirrors itself
What is the relative deprivation theory
collective political violence measures the tension between the "ought" and the "is"
What is jus in bello?
specifies moral constraints throughout the duration of war
Extrasystemic wars are...
fought between members and either independents non-members or ethnically different non-members
What is the logic of child soldiering?
their susceptibility to indoctrination
What are sacred values?
moral imperatives that drive behavior without rationale
What is "The Tragedy of the Commons"?
individuals acting in their own interest will betray the common good
What is nuclear winter?
climate condition after mutually assured destruction
What is a devoted actor?
An actor that betrays self interest and makes sacrifices for sacred values
What do states have an incentive to do during war time?
What is torture?
intentional act of inflicting pain as punishment, to divulge info, etc
What is guerilla warfare?
deployement of small mobile forces aimed to bleed out the larger force
What is anarchy?
without supreme organization or hierarchy
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