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27 terms

Biology Terminology Quiz 3

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Cell
The basic unit of structure and function in all living things
Eukaryote
An organism whose cells contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; examples include animals, plants, protists, fungi
Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples are archaea and bacteria
Unicellular
Of only a single cell
Multicellular
Of more than one cell
Animal Cell
A cell that lacks chloroplasts, a cell wall, and a large, central vacuole
Plant Cell
A type of cell characterized by a rigid cell wall and the presence of many chloroplasts
Golgi Body
An organelle that receives proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell
Cell Membrane
A thin, phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment, regulating what comes into and goes out of the cell
Cell Wall
A strong, rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants, algae, and some other organisms
Vacuole
A membrane-bound, sac-like organelle inside a cell (especially plant cells) that stores materials such as water and proteins for later use
Chloroplast
An organelle found mainly in plants and algae that absorbs energy from sunlight and converts it to chemical energy (photosynthesis)
Nucleus
A prominent organelle that contains the cell's genetic information (DNA) and regulates the cell's activities
Nucleolus
A small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins
Mitochondria
Long, rodlike organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy through cellular respiration
Ribosome
Small and spherical organelles that are the site of protein synthesis
Lysosome
A membrane-bound organelle that is filled with enzymes necessary to break down certain materials in the cell
Smooth ER
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes
Rough ER
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is dotted with ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
Hydrophilic
Having a strong affinity for water; attracting water molecules
Hydrophobic
Having an aversion towards water; repelling water molecules
Chromatin
The combination of DNA and protein molecules that make up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell; appear long and thin
Chromosome
A threadlike structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that contains hereditary information
Centriole
A tiny structure located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions
Cytoskeleton
A network of long protein strands in the cytoplasm that helps to keep the cell's shape and to aid in movement
Organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell; literally means "little organ"