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scale that indicates the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution; measurement of hydrogen ion concentration
tiny structures usually formed by deposits of protein (or other substances) on the walls of renal tubes
urine testing that includes physical, chemical, and microscopic testing of a urine sample
ratio of weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of the same volume of distilled water at the same temperature
transparent, clear casts that are often hard to see in urine; should be examined under subdued lighting
found in normal urine sediment, these structures generally have no particular significance; presence of a few should be noted because they may indicate disease states
test results that indicate a potentially lifethreatening or greatly debilitating situation that must be reported to a physician immediately
preliminary examination used to detect the most characteristic signs of a disorder that may entail further investigation
condition that occurs when the net rate at which the body produces acids or bases is equal to the net rate at which acid or bases are excreted
orange-yellow pigment that forms from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It travels in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted to a water-soluble form and excreted into the bile
colorless compound produced in the intestine after the breakdown by bacteria of bilirubin
accumulation of ketones in the body, occurring primarily as a compilation of diabetes mellitus
pattern based on 24 hour cycle that emphasizes the repetition of certain physiologic phenomena such as eating and sleeping
waste products formed in muscle that is excreted by the kidneys, increased in blood and urine when kidney function is abnormal
instrument that measures the refractive index of a substance or solution; used to measure the specific gravity
urine that appears to be above the sediment when centrifuged; poured off before sediment is examined under the microscope
pyridium a bladder analgesic can
turn the urine a bright orange to red and may stain clothes and quiet down bladder irritation
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