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Urinalysis

chapter 42
STUDY
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Clinitest
reagent table test that confirms the presence of reducing sugars in the urine
ketone
chemical compound produced during increased metabolism of fat
pH
scale that indicates the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution; measurement of hydrogen ion concentration
urochrome
yellow pigment that provides color to urine
sediment
insoluble matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid
amorphous
crystalline material found in urine sediment; shapeless; possessing no definite form
Ictotest
confirmatory test for bilirubin
cultures
microorganisms cultivated in a nutrient medium
casts
tiny structures usually formed by deposits of protein (or other substances) on the walls of renal tubes
urinalysis
urine testing that includes physical, chemical, and microscopic testing of a urine sample
Acetest
product used to test for the presence of abnormal amounts of acetone in the urine
quality control
program that ensures accurate and dependable tests results
specific gravity
ratio of weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of the same volume of distilled water at the same temperature
hyaline
transparent, clear casts that are often hard to see in urine; should be examined under subdued lighting
crystals
found in normal urine sediment, these structures generally have no particular significance; presence of a few should be noted because they may indicate disease states
midstream collection
urine sample collected in the middle of the flow of urine
panic value
test results that indicate a potentially lifethreatening or greatly debilitating situation that must be reported to a physician immediately
reagent test strip
narrow strip of plastic on which pads containing reagents are attached
urea
principal end product of protein metabolism
meniscus
curvature appearing in a liquid's upper surface when the liquid is placed in a container
turbid
opaque; lack of clarity
screening
preliminary examination used to detect the most characteristic signs of a disorder that may entail further investigation
acid-base balance
condition that occurs when the net rate at which the body produces acids or bases is equal to the net rate at which acid or bases are excreted
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment that forms from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It travels in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted to a water-soluble form and excreted into the bile
hematuria
abnormal presence of blood in the urine
hematuria is symptomatic of
many disorders of the genitourinary system and renal diseases
glucose
simple sugar that is a major source of energy in the human body
leukocytes esterase
test that indicates the presence of white blood cells in the urinary tract
urobilinogen
colorless compound produced in the intestine after the breakdown by bacteria of bilirubin
reagent
chemical substances that detect or synthesize other substances in a chemical reaction
ketoacidosis
accumulation of ketones in the body, occurring primarily as a compilation of diabetes mellitus
circadian rhythm
pattern based on 24 hour cycle that emphasizes the repetition of certain physiologic phenomena such as eating and sleeping
creatinine
waste products formed in muscle that is excreted by the kidneys, increased in blood and urine when kidney function is abnormal
refractometers
instrument that measures the refractive index of a substance or solution; used to measure the specific gravity
urinometer
device used to measure specific gravity that consists of a float with a calibrated stem
supernatant
urine that appears to be above the sediment when centrifuged; poured off before sediment is examined under the microscope
Tamm-Horsfall
mucoprotein excretedby the epithelial cells of the renal tubules
pyridium a bladder analgesic can
turn the urine a bright orange to red and may stain clothes and quiet down bladder irritation
the written instructions for a midstream, clean catch should be posted
beside and behind the toilet
the most common collection of urine in the physician's office lab is the
random collection
which part of the urinalysis is to be performed by the physician
microscopic examination
ketones in urine indicate
fat hemolysis
amount of urine needed for an urinalysis
10 ml