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chapter 42


reagent table test that confirms the presence of reducing sugars in the urine


chemical compound produced during increased metabolism of fat


scale that indicates the relative alkalinity or acidity of a solution; measurement of hydrogen ion concentration


yellow pigment that provides color to urine


insoluble matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid


crystalline material found in urine sediment; shapeless; possessing no definite form


confirmatory test for bilirubin


microorganisms cultivated in a nutrient medium


tiny structures usually formed by deposits of protein (or other substances) on the walls of renal tubes


urine testing that includes physical, chemical, and microscopic testing of a urine sample


product used to test for the presence of abnormal amounts of acetone in the urine

quality control

program that ensures accurate and dependable tests results

specific gravity

ratio of weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of the same volume of distilled water at the same temperature


transparent, clear casts that are often hard to see in urine; should be examined under subdued lighting


found in normal urine sediment, these structures generally have no particular significance; presence of a few should be noted because they may indicate disease states

midstream collection

urine sample collected in the middle of the flow of urine

panic value

test results that indicate a potentially lifethreatening or greatly debilitating situation that must be reported to a physician immediately

reagent test strip

narrow strip of plastic on which pads containing reagents are attached


principal end product of protein metabolism


curvature appearing in a liquid's upper surface when the liquid is placed in a container


opaque; lack of clarity


preliminary examination used to detect the most characteristic signs of a disorder that may entail further investigation

acid-base balance

condition that occurs when the net rate at which the body produces acids or bases is equal to the net rate at which acid or bases are excreted


orange-yellow pigment that forms from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It travels in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted to a water-soluble form and excreted into the bile


abnormal presence of blood in the urine

hematuria is symptomatic of

many disorders of the genitourinary system and renal diseases


simple sugar that is a major source of energy in the human body

leukocytes esterase

test that indicates the presence of white blood cells in the urinary tract


colorless compound produced in the intestine after the breakdown by bacteria of bilirubin


chemical substances that detect or synthesize other substances in a chemical reaction


accumulation of ketones in the body, occurring primarily as a compilation of diabetes mellitus

circadian rhythm

pattern based on 24 hour cycle that emphasizes the repetition of certain physiologic phenomena such as eating and sleeping


waste products formed in muscle that is excreted by the kidneys, increased in blood and urine when kidney function is abnormal


instrument that measures the refractive index of a substance or solution; used to measure the specific gravity


device used to measure specific gravity that consists of a float with a calibrated stem


urine that appears to be above the sediment when centrifuged; poured off before sediment is examined under the microscope


mucoprotein excretedby the epithelial cells of the renal tubules

pyridium a bladder analgesic can

turn the urine a bright orange to red and may stain clothes and quiet down bladder irritation

the written instructions for a midstream, clean catch should be posted

beside and behind the toilet

the most common collection of urine in the physician's office lab is the

random collection

which part of the urinalysis is to be performed by the physician

microscopic examination

ketones in urine indicate

fat hemolysis

amount of urine needed for an urinalysis

10 ml

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