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the crucible zuba studyguide
Terms in this set (55)
the jilting of granny weatherall
Granny is in bed while Doctor Harry tries to take her pulse
Granny says she is not sick and insults the guy and tells him to go
Granny feels like her bones are floating around inside her and that the Doctor looks like he is floating around
Granny isn't as well as she thinks she is
Granny says she is going to lay in bed for awhile and she closes her eyes and hears Doctor harry talking to her daughter Cornelia about her, which makes her mad
Granny thinks about her daughter and mumbles something and Cornelia asked if she needs something and Granny tells her to get lost
Granny has a lot to do the next day and she wants to get rid of a box of old love letters in the attic, she doesn't want her kids to find them after they die
Her thoughts drift to death
She is eighty years old and she is lying sick in bed
This is a good time to think about death
Granny calls for Cornelia and asks her to bring her a hot toddy, she is going to live her best life until she dies
Cornelia isn't too sure about a hot toddy and Granny thinks Cornelia is taking this as another sign that she has lost it
Granny reflects about her children, Lydia and Jimmy who both rely on her for advice
She thinks about how it would be weird to see her late husband John again
After John died, Granny started digging post holes as a job
Granny starts thinking again and she starts thinking about a memory of lighting lamps with her kids, then she says a prayer and says advice about picking fruit
Granny thinks of an image of herself in a white veil as she is putting out a wedding cake
Everything was perfect except the guy she was supposed to marry didn't show
She dwelled on how sad it was to be left at the altar
Cornelia interrupts her thoughts and asks her how she feels
Granny says the names of her other children, they are on the way
Cornelia is struggling to hold it together and she kneels down and puts her head on Granny's pillow and is crying
Granny asks her who's birthday it is and this disturbed Cornelia
Cornelia says the doctor arrived again
She says the doctor was there in the morning and it is now night
Granny is told she is going to be given a hot
Granny thinks about someone named Hapsy, who she thinks she sees them holding a baby
Granny becomes Hapsy and the baby turns into Hapsy then Hapsy melts
Cornelia asks Granny if she needs anything
Granny wants to see George the jerk who stood her up at her wedding, she is still holding a candle for him and she wants to rub it in his face about how great her life turned out
Cornelia told Granny that Father Connolly is there and his presence reminds Granny of George because he was supposed to marry them
Granny then recalls images of her children again and Hapsy was one of the daughters that died at a young age
Granny tries to communicate with them but they don't understand her
Granny thinks of George again
Father says something in latin and tickles granny's feet
Granny is offended, he is up to no good
Granny's eyes are closed bt she can sense light flashing and feel roaring
Lydia and Jimmy arrived and Granny thinks they came to watch her die but she can't die yet she has too much to do
Granny is all good cause she gets to see Hapsy again
Granny focuses on the blue light of Cornelia's lampshade which keeps getting dinner
Granny thinks another time about being jilted
Then she stretched herself and blew out the light, she died
a rose for emily
The town informs a lot that happens to Miss Emily and the people she interacts with
The narrator of the story represents several generations of men and women from the town
The story begins at a funeral for Miss Emily Grierson
Nobody in her house for 10 years except her servant so everyone is excited to go inside
Her house is old but at one point was the best house around
The town and Emily had a special relationship ever since the town stopped billing her for taxes in 1894
The "newer generation" wasn't happy with this so they visited Miss Emily to try to get her to pay the tax debt
Miss Emily refused to acknowledge that the old arrangement might not work and she refused to pay
Leap time, 30 year before Emily vanquishes the tax office
The townspeople complained about a horrible smell coming from Emily's house
This was two years after her father died and a short time after her lover disappeared from her life
The authorities didn't want to confront her
Emily was a lady and telling her she smelled wasn't right
They sprinkled lime around the house in the dead of night and it eventually went away
Temporal leap, everyone felt sad for her when her dad died
He left her the house but no money
He spent years scaring away any suitor that might want to marry Emily
When her father died, Emily refused to admit it for three days
The town didn't think she was crazy then but thought she didn't want to let go of him yet even though he was abusive
Story doubles back, she dated a guy after her father died named Homer Barron who was a Northerner in town on a sidewalk-building project
The town didn't like the affair and brought her cousins in town to stop it
Emily was seen buying arsenic at the drugstore one day and the town thought she was going to kill herself
Town thought it was for the best because she was unmarried and was over thirty and Homer was heard saying he wasn't the marrying type
Emily went and bought a bunch of guy's items like an engraved shaving kit, a suit, a nightshirt
The town thinks they are going to get married
Homer leaves town then the cousins leave town and Homer comes back
He was seen entering her house but never seen again
Emily rarely leaves the house after that
She is only seen giving painting lessons in her parlor
Her hair is gray and she gains weight and she died in a downstairs bedroom that hasn't seen light in years
Temporal leap time, goes to where the story began at her funeral
Tobe is her servant
He lets them in and leaves by the backdoor and is never seen again
Emily is buried and the people go to the room and break in, hasn't been opened in 40 years
Corpse of Homer Barron is rotting on the bed
Dust of the pillow next to Homer is an indentation of a head and there is a long gray hair
a worn path
On a cold December day
There is an elderly woman named Phoenix Jackson who makes her way along a remote path
She narrates the journey to herself as she goes
She traverses the different types of terrain like hills, forests, swamps, and fields
These test the strength and endurance of her old body
Phoenix encounters animals and people and some are real and others are daydreams, memories, or tricks
One of the animals is a black dog
The dog bowls her over and leaves her lying in a ditch until a hunter, a young white man who also has a dog chained by his side, helps her up
They chat and talk about her age and where she is going and he seems nice but he is a jerk
He sends his dog to attack the black dog and he points his gun at Phoenix which he thinks is funny
They part ways and Hunter tells her to go home but she wants to finish her journey
The path gives way to town that is decorated for Christmas and there are a lot of people
Phoenix asks someone to tie her shoes then she climbs the steps to a big building and goes into a doctor's office where she is greeted by a mean attendant
A nurse recognized her as the grandmother who makes the long trip into the city to get medicine for her grandson who is sick with lye poisoning
She doesn't think it will help but the nurse gives her the medicine for her grandson's throat and she gives her a nickel in the spirit of Christmas
She decides she will buy her grandson a paper windmill to bring home
the life you save may be your own
In his first week of work, Tom Shiftlet makes a lot of progress, and teaches the younger Lucynell, a deaf-mute, to say a few words
Her mother suggests that he teach her to say, "sugarpie," and it is obvious that she hopes they will get married
He decides that he is going to make the old car run again, and the elder Lucynell agrees to give him the money he needs to fix it
The next day, he has it running, and drives it out of the garage.
That night, the elder Lucynell Crater makes explicit her offer of her daughter as a wife.
At first, Tom Shiftlet says he cannot get married because he has no money. But she argues that her daughter doesn't know the difference, and says that she will pay to paint the car by Saturday so that they can drive to the courthouse and get married. She also offers to give him money for a modest honeymoon, and he is convinced.
That Saturday, the three of them drive to the courthouse and the younger Lucynell Crater and Tom Shiftlet are married legally
Tom Shiftlet says he is unsatisfied with the wedding, since "that was just something a woman in an office did, nothing but paperwork and blood tests."
They drop the elder Lucynell Crater off at the house, and she is clearly pained to say goodbye to her daughter since they have never been separated before; however, she expects to see them again after two days
After driving one hundred miles, Tom Shiftlet stops at The Hot Spot, a restaurant.
Lucynell promptly falls asleep on the counter. He buys her a plate of food and tells the boy working at the counter to give it to her when she wakes up; he explains that she is a hitchhiker and that he can't wait since he has to make it to Tuscaloosa
As he drives away, he sees the occasional sign reading, "Drive carefully. The life you save may be your own."
Soon, he picks up a boy wearing overalls who is hitchhiking with a suitcase
Tom Shiftlet begins to talk to the boy, who is unresponsive at first. He talks about his mother, whom he praises as "the best old mother in the world," and muses that the worst day of his life was when he left her. This is clearly making the boy uncomfortable.
As Tom Shiftlet begins to tear up from talking about his angelic mother, the hitchhiking boy tells him, "You go to the devil! My old woman is a flea bag and yours is a stinking polecat!" and throws himself from the passenger door. A storm cloud descends and it starts to rain as Tom Shiftlet continues to drive toward Mobile.
why did miller write the crucible
That evening Miller began writing The Crucible — one of his most famous plays — which uses the Salem Witch trials as an allegory to Senator Joseph McCarthy's oppressive tactics.
'The Red Scare' or 'McCarthyism'; a time when government initiated propaganda against Communism was at its zenith. The United States administration would blacklist and accuse anyone for the crime of supporting communism; with or without evidence.
The same fate befell the then thirty seven years old Arthur Miller who was condemned for disrespect & disapproval of the United States Congress for being unsuccessful in naming numerous individuals who had attended meetings with him. In a bid to not only secure his career as a journalist & play writer and also to alert the American people against the government misinformation & propaganda that were headed their way, Miller started to ink The Crucible. Using the 'Salem Witch Trials' of the early 1690s as a precinct, Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible. The characters in the play are faced with the same tragedies & sentences that befell people during the McCarthyism trials; he uses the 'Salem Witch Trials' as a metaphor to draw national attention towards the doings and executioners of the McCarthyism propaganda.
a vociferous campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy in the period 1950-54. Many of the accused were blacklisted or lost their jobs, although most did not in fact belong to the Communist Party
house of un american activities
American Activities- a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, investigated allegations of communist activity in the U.S. during the early years of the Cold War (1945-91). Established in 1938, the committee wielded its subpoena power as a weapon and called citizens to testify in high-profile hearings before Congress
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs
The term Gothic fiction refers to a style of writing that is characterized by elements of fear, horror, death, and gloom, as well as romantic elements, such as nature, individuality, and very high emotion. These emotions can include fear and suspense
Local color or regional literature is fiction and poetry that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region
southern gothic drama
Southern Gothic- Southern Gothic literature is a genre of Southernwriting. The stories often focus on grotesque themes. While it may include supernatural elements, it mainly focuses on damaged, even delusional, characters. ... The authors wrote fiction, but included supernatural and romantic elements
four act drama
Because there are three major "establishing points" in a well-written script: the event at the end of the first act (the life-changing event) that forces the hero to choose between his/her flaw and some opportunity or threat presented by the opponent; the "hero-ally confrontation" between the hero and the hero's ally in which the hero is forced to finally face up to his flaw; the final resolution of that flaw that allows the hero to "enter the ring" against the opponent unencumbered by that flaw.
stream of consciousness
a method of narration that describes happenings in the flow of thoughts in the minds of the characters.
A quest serves as a plot device in mythology and fiction: a difficult journey towards a goal, often symbolic or allegorical. Tales of quests figure prominently in the folklore of every nation and ethnic culture.
typical character, an action, or a situation that seems to represent universal patterns of human nature. An archetype, also known as "universal symbol," may be a character, a theme, a symbol, or even a setting
A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists
setting of the crucible
who caught the girls dancing in the woods
who is harris's niece
who did abigail have an affair with
who worked as proctors servant
the vestry room is turned into what
the court room
mary accuses who of making her sign the devils book
who was not dancing in the woods: abigail, betty, ruth, rebecca
the reason why elizabeth is not going to be hung is because
she claims she is pregnant
what does proctor confess to while in the courtoom
that he had an affair
what evidence is brought out against proctor
he goes to church once a month, he plows his fields on sunday
elizabeth says she is pregnant because
she doesn't want to be hung until the baby is born
did elizabeth ever confirm john and abigail slept together
what is the reason for proctor telling everyone he had an affair with abigail
to show abigail is a liar
parris says john is trying to do what to the court
what does abigail do at the very end of the play
she robs her uncle and runs away and disappears
when mary testifies, what does she say about all the girls
that they were faking it and pretending
who threatened john that she would reveal his and abigail's relationship
who was questioned for witchcraft in act 3
giles cory wife, martha
who tried to clear elizabeth's name
who does tituba want to take her home (the cow)
what does hawthorn want mary to do
faint on command
does hale help out proctor when he is accused
when proctor is accused and arrested, hale
denounced the proceedings
what do hale and danforth try and get elizabeth to do
they try to get her to make john confess
in the end, who agreed to confess
john did not end up confessing because
they wanted him to write it down and sign it, he didn't want to
crucible act 1
The play is set in the town of Salem, MA, and the year is 1692.
Betty Parris, a young girl, is sick, but no one can figure out why.
Rumors spread around town that she's been bewitched.
Betty's dad is Reverend Parris, the new-ish church leader in Salem, who is paranoid about his reputation amongst the townspeople.
Abigail Williams, Reverend Parris' teenage niece and Betty's cousin, is questioned by Parris about the cause of Betty's illness.
He knows that Abigail, Betty, and Parris' slave, Tituba, were dancing in the woods the night before and perhaps conducting some kind of ritual.
Abigail claims there was no witchcraft involved.
Abigail had an affair with a farmer named John Proctor while serving in his house, and she's still into him, but he wants to forget it ever happened.
Betty says that Abigail tried to put a curse on John's wife, Elizabeth Proctor, in order to kill her and take her place, but no one else knows about this, and Abigail warns her to keep quiet.
Reverend Hale, the church leader from the town of Beverley, is summoned to examine Betty because he's an expert on witchcraft.
Tituba is accused of calling the Devil in the woods based on Abigail's testimony, and she confesses under pressure from Hale.
Tituba names Goody Good and Goody Osburn as fellow witches after their names are suggested.
Abigail plays the victim and accuses more women of witchcraft.
Betty wakes up and makes accusations of her own, following Abigail's lead.
crucible act 2
Elizabeth informs John that more people have been arrested, and he needs to go to Salem to tell the court that Abigail is a fraud.
Mary returns from Salem after participating in the trials and gives Elizabeth a ragdoll she made in court.
Mary tells the Proctors that Elizabeth was mentioned briefly, but the accusations were dismissed thanks to Mary's favorable testimony.
Elizabeth knows Abigail will continue to accuse her until something sticks, and she tells John he has to go directly to Abigail and tell her that they're NEVER gonna be a thing.
Hale warily questions the Proctors about their skimpy church attendance, and John tells him Abigail is a fraud. Hale has fleeting doubts about the legitimacy of the girls' accusations.
Francis Nurse and Giles Corey come to the house and say that their wives have been arrested.
Then, Ezekiel Cheever and Marshal Herrick arrive with a warrant for Elizabeth's arrest.
They find a needle in the doll Mary gave Elizabeth that corresponds to the needle that Elizabeth's familiar spirit supposedly used to stab Abigail.
Elizabeth goes with them peacefully after realizing she can't prove her innocence.
John angrily insists that Mary must tell the court Abigail is lying.
Mary says she's too scared of the consequences and doesn't think she can do it.
crucible act 3
Martha Corey is questioned by Danforth.
Giles Corey objects to this and argues with the judges, insisting that the accusations against her are phony.
Mary and John arrive, and Mary reveals that she didn't actually see any spirits.
John presents a petition as evidence of the good character of Elizabeth Proctor, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey, but it backfires; Danforth has warrants drawn up for the signees.
Giles informs Danforth that Thomas Putnam told Ruth Putnam to accuse George Jacobs so Putnam could get Jacobs' land.
However, Giles won't reveal who told him this, so he's arrested for contempt of court.
Danforth reviews Mary's deposition where she testifies that the girls were faking.
The girls are brought in and questioned, and Abigail denies the accusations.
Mary is unable to pretend to faint on command, which makes Danforth, Parris, and Hathorne doubt her revised testimony.
John admits to his affair with Abigail in desperation, but the usually truthful Elizabeth does not corroborate his claims because she doesn't know he's already confessed.
Abigail and the other girls act like they are being bewitched by Mary, who accuses John of working for the Devil out of fear that she will be condemned by the court.
John Proctor and Giles Corey are arrested, and Hale quits the court.
crucible act 4
Danforth and Hawthorne meet in a jail cell and discuss their concerns with Parris' erratic behavior and Hale's return to Salem.
Parris joins them and reveals that Hale is advising the prisoners to confess.
Parris also reveals that Abigail ran away with his life's savings, most likely because of the rising societal discontent with the court's activities.
Both Parris and Hale beg Danforth to either pardon the prisoners or postpone the hangings until confessions are obtained because Rebecca Nurse and John Proctor still have such good reputations, and their executions could cause an uprising.
Danforth refuses because he's already executed other prisoners accused of the same crimes, and he doesn't want to look weak.
They decide to bring in Elizabeth Proctor so she can talk to John and hopefully convince him to confess before he is sent to the gallows.
John and Elizabeth discuss this decision, and John is leaning towards confessing because he doesn't feel he's worthy of martyrdom.
Elizabeth tells him he has to make his own choice.
John begins to confess, but he falters when he is ordered to sign his name to the confession and learns that it will be displayed publicly.
He tears up the confession and decides he will go to his death rather than permanently ruin his reputation and sacrifice the only integrity he has left.
The officials try to convince Elizabeth to stop him, but she refuses because she recognizes this is the only way John can end his feelings of self-hatred.
John and Rebecca Nurse are led to the gallows to be executed.
lies and deceit theme
Most of the characters in The Crucible are lying—if not to other people, then to themselves. Abigail lies about her ability to see spirits, as do the other girls; Proctor is deceitful first for cheating on his wife and then for hiding it; and the judge and lieutenant governor and ministers lie to themselves and everybody else in saying that they serve the cause of God's justice. The twist in the story is that by telling the truth ("I am not a witch"), you die, but you also gain your freedom—that is, you retain your standing with God, and you become a martyr.
respect and reputation
Reputation is extremely important in a town where social standing is tied to one's ability to follow religious rules. Your good name is the only way you can get other people to do business with you... or even get a fair hearing.
Of course, reputation meant nothing when a witchcraft accusation was staring you in the face. But reputation is what made the Reverend Hale begin to doubt whether the accused individuals were actually guilty. And it was for the sake of his reputation and his friends' reputations that John Proctor refused to sign a false confession. He would, quite literally, rather die.
compassion and forgiveness
John Proctor, the protagonist of The Crucible, is in desperate need of forgiveness at the start of the play... but his wife seems torn about whether to grant it. He committed adultery earlier that year while she was sick, and though his lover (Abigail Williams) is now out of his life, Elizabeth still judges him for it.
More importantly, he still judges himself. It isn't until Elizabeth forgives him and admits her own faults that John Proctor is able to forgive himself. It is also what gives him the courage to go to his death.
good v evil
The entire village bases its belief system on the conflict between good vs. evil, or Satan vs. God. Over and over, as people are accused of witchcraft, this paradigm gets dragged out. When Tituba confesses, she claims she wants to be a good Christian now and stop hurting people. She must renounce the Devil. When Mary Warren can't handle the girls' accusations, she accuses Proctor of making her sign the Devil's book and claims she is now with God.
The world in The Crucible is clearly divided into these two camps. Unfortunately, everybody's confused about which side is actually good and which side is actually evil, though it's abundantly clear to the reader. It may seem like evil is winning, as one innocent person after another is put to death, but we also see that there is power in martyrdom.
The supernatural is real to the people in The Crucible. They see evidence of God and evidence of the Devil everywhere. Yet nobody actually sees spirits—though the girls claim they do. But the play makes it clear that they are pretending.
Their pretense may be a group psychological phenomenon, but in the world as the reader understands it, if there is a Devil, he's not in Salem: there are only people—some good, some misled, some greedy, some jealous, some vengeful, some evil
The Salem of The Crucible is a theocracy, which means that God is supposed to be the ultimate leader, arbiter, and judge.
In practice, however, the town's religious authorities do the governing. God needs men on earth to do his work of justice, and Hathorne, Danforth, Hale, and Parris are all part of that system. They believe that God is speaking through the children to help them prosecute invisible, hidden crimes. The whole system gets turned upside-down, and these men of experience and education are completely dependent on the assumption that children are telling the truth.
Religion is woven into the everyday life of Salem in The Crucible. The townsfolk practice a form of Christianity centered on a set of clearly defined rules: you go to church every Sunday, you don't work on the Sabbath, you believe the Gospel, you respect the minister's word like it is God's, and so on.
For people accused of witchcraft, any deviation from these rules in the past can be used as evidence for much greater sins in the present. But ultimately, even good and respected and highly religious women like Rebecca Nurse are accused and put to death, so past respectability and religiosity doesn't necessarily protect anyone.
Many of the characters are motivated by jealousy and greed in The Crucible. Abigail is motivated by jealousy of Elizabeth Proctor; she wants Elizabeth to die so she can marry John, Elizabeth's husband.
Thomas Putnam is motivated by jealousy of other people's property; he wants George Jacobs to die so he can get his hands on a great piece of land. Little attention is devoted to the subject of envy by any of the characters, even though it is the hidden force driving most of the drama in town.
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