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Bio 111: Final Exam Part 1: Exam 3 Test Questions
Terms in this set (18)
List two diseases that are related to the process shown below not functioning properly
The process below describes how self- and non-self cells are differentiated by the immune system. A
mistake results in the body attacking itself (=or an autoimmune disease); Examples include
rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes,
Imagine two populations, one where children are regularly breast fed and the other where
breast feeding is frowned upon and children are raised primarily on dairy products. Allergies to
dairy products should be more common in what population?
Population that was not introduced to dairy products as an infant.
Name 2 phyla that have members that have evolved the ability to actively fly?
Chordata and Arthropoda
List one anatomical constituitive defense in plants
There are many including spines, hairs, waxy cuticle, etc. Tannins and other chemicals are not really
anatomical features, although they are constituitive.
Histotroph milk and placenta
Histotroph milk, or uterine milk, is a nutrient-rich liquid that is secreted from the uterus of some shark
spoecies and fed on by their young. Because these embryos are not relying on yolk, there is some
speculation that this might have been a transitional stage in the evolution of the placenta. The
placenta is an organ that forms in female placental mammals when they are pregnant and
supports embryonic development. These differ in the sense that the histotroph milk is a secretion
and purely nutritional, whereas the placenta is an organ made of maternal and embryonic tissue
that is involved in nutrition and waste removal.
Pollen and stamen
Pollen is the male gametophyte of flowering plants and their close relatives that consists of an protective
exine surrounding only 2 cells, one that is involved in fertilization of the ova. Stamen is the male structure
of flowering plants where the pollen grains are formed. They differ as follows: the stamen is an organ
which produces the male reproductive structures called pollen grains.
Mycorrhrizae and rhizobia
Mycorrhizae are fungi that are associated with the roots of most species of plants. The relationship is a
mutualism where both the plant and the fungus benefit from the relationship. Plants with
mycorrhizae obtain more water and nutrients from the soil that plants without mycorhizzae.
Rhizobia are a bacterial group that fix nitrogen and are associated with the roots of some groups
of plants. This is also a beneficial relationship for the plant and the bacterial. In both these cases,
the relationship is mutualistic although very different groups are participating and they have
different ecological roles that are important for their plant hosts.
supercooling and freeze tolerant
Supercooling refers to any case when the temperature of a liquid falls below its freezing points. Freeze
tolerant refers to organisms that are able to tolerate ice formation inside their bodyies without incurring
damage to cells and tissues. Many organisms can tolerate supercooling if they avoid ice from forming
altogether-these may involve antifreeze proteins or other adaptations that prevent ice from developing
at all. Where ice is formed in the body is controlled by freeze tolerant organisms—ice crystals are
allowed to grow in areas where cell membranes will not be destroyed.
Both those animals that supercool and those that are freeze-tolerant cannot have their cells exposed to
ice formation, however supercooling is an adaptation to prevent any ice from forming in their body while
freeze tolerant organisms can survive when ice does form.
What are 2 neotenous traits found in Homo sapiens?
Late emergence of teeth, learning until late in life, flat face
Explain in terms of Fick's Law why the smallest capillary diameter is approximately the
same diameter as an erythrocyte?
The red blood cells are important carriers of oxygen and carbon dioxide to the body, and the transfer of
oxygen and carbon dioxide involves diffusion. Because diffusion is effective only over very short
distances (<0.5 mm), close proximity of the oxygen-carrying red blood cell and metabolically
active cells is paramount.
A small acorn grows into a large oak tree. Where does most of the weight of the oak tree
Why do terrestrial plants require so much more water than a similarly-sized terrestrial
Plants have an open circulatory system that pulls water into the roots to the leaves where transpiration
takes place. What drives the circulatory system of a plant is actually the evaporation of water
from the stomata and the cohesion potential of water molecules. Without the negative tension
from water, body size would be limited. The circulatory system of animals is closed and is
pressured by muscle activity. Closed systems are more economical in terms of water use.
Describe (in terms of Fick's Law) the advantage of the countercurrent mechanism
The concentration gradient is an important feature of Fick's law, and the countercurrent mechanism in
fish gills is a good example of how biological systems manipulate gradients. In a co-current system
(shown on the right side of the figure), both the oxygen gradient of the blood vessels and the water run
in parallel and from low to high. As the concentration of oxygen in veins approaches the same level as
the oxygen concentration of the water, the rate of oxygen transfer decreases. The counter current
system (shown on the left) is arranged so that the oxygen gradient of the blood vessels and the water are
in opposite directions. In this case there is always a concentration difference and oxygen is taken up by
the blood vessels for the entire length they are in contact with the water.
List 2 ways that plants disperse their offspring/ genes long-distances?
Pollen, seeds, fruit around seeds, Wind pollination, animal pollination and ballistic dispersal of seeds etc
On the graph below, which line best describes how circulatory system size changes with
body size? Why?
Every cell in an organism requires oxygen no
matter how far from the external environment
that cell is in the body. The size of the circulatory
must increase proportionally to the volume.
Why is water loss for terrestrial organisms more of a problem for small-sized than for
This is a surface area to volume problem. Smaller organisms have more surface area per unit of volume
and are thus going to lose water by simple evaporation more quickly than a larger-bodied
organism if all things are equal. This would be true for any comparison of ectotherms,
endotherms, conformers regulators.
If the percentage of oxygen in the air is about 21% from sea level up to 20,000 m, why is it
harder to breathe at the top of the highest mountains of the world?
The concentration of oxygen is much less at high altitudes. Thus in a given breath, the amount of oxygen
taken in during inhalation will be reduced and make it hard to breath.
A common misconception is that Homo sapiens are unique because they are bipedal and
have evolved an unusually large cranial capacity. What is the evidence that each of these
hypotheses are not correct?
Both of these arguments relate to when the trait arose. There is excellent evidence that bipedalism
occurred at least 5.8 mya in Ardipithecis ramidus (and maybe before). This suggests that
bipedalism is not something that make Homo sapiens unusual given that it evolved well-before
the origin of the species we are members of. A similar argument can be made for large cranial
capacity. The largest change in brain size was in Homo erectus, a species that was extant from
approximately 1.9 mya to 150,000 years ago. The most recent fossils of Homo erectus averaged
larger cranial capacity than those of modern-day humans. As such, brain size alone does not set us apart.
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