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Biology Quiz - The Digestive System - Ms. Amos (Completed)
Terms in this set (48)
The only bodily system in which food enters
The digestive system
What does the digestive system do?
It converts food into small molecules that can be used by the cells of the body.
What are the four phases of the digestive system?
Putting the food in your mouth.
Using Mechanical and Chemical digestion to break down food.
Once food is broken down, it can be absorbed by the cells of the small intestine. From there, the molecules enter the circulatory system, which transports them throughout the body.
Not all foods can be digested and absorbed in the body, as such some foods are eliminated from the body in the form of feces.
What are the two ways food is broken down.
Mechanical and Chemical digestion.
Is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces. (Ex: Chewing)
Enzymes break down food into small molecules. (Ex: Salivary fluids)
Where does food travel during the process of digestion?
The mouth, esophagus, stomach and small intestine.
What is the human digestive system built around?
An alimentary canal (a one way tube that passes through the body).
What is first broken down in the mouth by enzymes?
What it the salivary enzyme called?
Amylase, which breaks down carbohydrates only.
Where are the teeth anchored?
The bones of the jaw.
What are the names of all the teeth in the mouth and what do they do?
Incisors, cuspids, and bicuspids - Cut and tear at the food.
Molers - Grind and crush food into a swallowable paste.
Tongue (Obv not a tooth) - Moves food to come in contact with your teeth.
Secrete saliva, moistens the food. The release of saliva is connected to the nervous system and can be triggered by the smell of food.
Begins the process of chemical digestion. It contains amylase that begins to break the chemical bonds in starches forming sugars. It also contains lysozyme.
This is an enzyme in saliva that fights infections by digesting the cell walls of bacteria that enter the mouth.
What pushes food down the throat?
The tongue and throat muscles push down the bolus.
Ball of chewed food.
What is the back of the throat called?
The pharynx, where bolus enters.
The flap that allows food to go down the right tube and air into the other.
A tube that connects to the stomach, contractions of smooth muscles called peristalsis provide the force to push food down the esophagus.
What is the ring muscle that closes the hole from the esophagus to the stomach?
Cardiac sphincter, prevents the contents of the stomach from flowing out.
What happens when their is a back-flow of stomach acid?
It leaks into your chest creating a heart burn (Not actually in the heart).
What is the stomach?
A large muscular sack that continues mechanical and chemical digestion. The stomach releases pepsin (an enzyme that does well in acid) and hydrochloric acid to keep digesting food.
What does pepsin digest?
Proteins, and makes them into polypeptide fragments.
What lubricates the stomach and protects the stomach walls?
Mucus created from another stomach gland.
What happens if the mucus layer fails?
The acid would erode the stomach lining causing a sore called a peptic ulster (Which can become infected).
What is the mechanical digestion in the stomach?
Alternating contractions between multiple smooth muscle layers that churns the food making it easier for enzymes to digest.
What is food called when it is in a chunky liquidy state?
How long does it take until the chyme is released into the small intestine and what opens it?
1-2 hours, and it is called the pyloric sphincter.
What is the first part of the small intestine that chyme enters?
Where do the enzymes in the duodenum come from?
The pancreas, liver, and duodenum lining.
What are the three important functions of the pancreas?
1. It produces hormones that regulate blood sugar level.
2.It produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
3.It produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that quickley nuetrilizes acid as chyme.
What do the liver and gallbladder do?
The liver: assists the pancreas in fat digestion and produces a bile which is stored int he gallbladder.
A fluid loaded with lipids and salt, it mechanically breaks down lipids and fats, making it easier for enzymes to digest (It is not an enzyme).
Effects of digestive enzymes
If it ends in "sin" it breaks down lipids.
How are nutrients absorbed and wastes eliminated?
Most nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported in the circulatory system. The large intestine then absorbs water and prepares waste for excretion.
Cover the surface of the small intestine that are the things that get the nutrients for the circulatory system.
Where are most fats and fatty acids absorbed?
Lymph vessels (blood vessels).
What are the only substances left behind in the small intestine?
Water, cellulose, etc.
Processes cellulose, useless in humans unless it needs to be removed.
What is the colons other name?
What is the primary goal of the large intestine?
To remove water from the excess waste.
Where is feces held?
In the rectum at the end of the large intestine where it then comes out the anus.
What happens if too much water or not enough is absorbed by the large intestine?
Too much - Constipation
Too little - Diarrhea
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