1st Semester AP US HISTORY
Terms in this set (90)
Benjamin Franklin submitted the this during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met here in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
Dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island
phrase meaning before the civil war
The opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, established the United States of America. Granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
During the Revolutionary War, served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Bill Of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. Drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state
In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed.
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized this protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Leader of Mormons
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
TRADITION, opposed banks and corporations as state legislated economic privilege, anti state legistlaed reforms and preferred individual freedom of choice, TJ agrarians, expansion, progress thru external growth, SOUTH
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807)
Led by Alexander Hamilton, believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. Influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
First Continental Congress
Convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. Endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
First Great Awakening
A time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. Promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Indian removal act
This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830)
Passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. Seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.
James K. Polk
Slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected
Seven debates before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Case in which a midnight appointee of the Adams administration sued the incoming President for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Molasses Act of 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
Defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. Was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
States' rights, strict interpretation, encouraged agriculture and rural life, South and West, France, Civil liberties and trust in people
Played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Politician who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850
The Jay Treaty
Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)
The Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)
The XYZ Affair
Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with
A prominent statesman, became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, organized the national government by Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
Officially called the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Treaty of Ghent
: Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War - US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states - US paid Mexico $15 million dollars
Treaty of Paris (1763):
The 1763 treaty that ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
abolitionist book by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. Favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815)
English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Robert E. Lee
Appointed command of the Confederate Army in 1862 during the Civil War. Despite his skill he was forced to surrender to Ulysses S Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies. Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
1770's by "Mother" Ann Lee; Utopian group that splintered from the Quakers; believed that they & all other churches had grown too interested in this world & neglectful of their afterlives; prohibited marriage and sexual relationships; practiced celibacy
Anti-slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery.
A belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
Notion that the people of a territory should determine if they want to be a slave state or a free state.
President of the Confederate States of America
(1862) an order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863
July 1st-3rd, 1863. Major turning point of the war. It is a Union Victory, and the South retreats from the North. General Lee never invades the North again.
Confederate forced the Union to surrender the U. Of S. Fort in Charleston, SC. Marked the official start of the Civil War.
April 1865., the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War