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Terms in this set (35)

-woman is going up on a swing and shes sitting on a red, velvet and gold seat on that swing held up by ropes
-swirl of a hat and you can see her white silk stockings an she flips one pink slipper into the air looking mischevious
-shes looking down on the left figure in the corner who is her lover hidden in the bushes while shes convinced the older man in the opposite corner to push her on a swing who does not know the young man is hidden in the bushes
-the statue of cupid holds his finger to his lips as if he is saying to keep it a secret
-were behind a villa or palace, and you can see architecture in the distance
-the garden is overgrown but not out of control; in a way it is fertile and abundant
-speaks to the sensual being and is dreamlike in its mists
-the trees and its boughts are at times full of foilage and at times bare which is used as an expression of passion
-in the bottom right corner there is a dog that seems to be yapping which is a symbol of fidelity
-ironic here ecause the dog seems upset and it is almost as if he is giivng away the secret and sculpture is saying shh
-kind of indulgence and expression of pleasure that characterizes the aristocracy and ruling class in france
-this kind of painting that seems only about pleasure are going to be railed against by the enlightenment to call for art that is heroic and virtuous
-clodion embraced his eras taste for antiquity; career spanned through the french revolution and napoleon's reign
-embodied the rococo movement that gripped furnace during the revolutionary period
-painted during the revolution
-david commemorates a hero of the revolution and depicts a contemporary event
-david became close with the leader of the jacobins and voted for the beheading of king louis xiv
-minister of propaganda spreading the ideals of the revolution through images
-a royalist charlotte corday who believed in absolute rule went to see marat (the leader of the revolution) and tricked him and murdered him in his bathtub
-you can see the knife she used to stab him lying on the bottom left corner of the canvas and the letter that she used to gain entrance being held by marat
-david is showing how duplicitous this woman was; she tricked marat though he was good and she brutally stabbed him
-extreme contrast between her duplicity and his nobility
-hes ideally beautiful though he had a skin disease and his pose reminds us of the pieta
-the idea that a martyr to the revolution is replacing the christian martyr
-below his signature he has written year 2 referring to the revolution
-idea of rationalism was being violently instituted; during the enlightenment that was a time of rational thinking
-painting about observations; contrast between the specificity of the foreground, especially on the crate which he's written his name, against the open brushwork of the background that doesn't look finished
-has a soft quality that focuses our attention on marat
-neoclassic interest is seen in his body through the study of the anatomy which pays attention to contours
-stark interior with no gold or elaborate furniture expressing that this man is living according to the republican ideals of the revolution
-david was imprisoned for his involvement and then became he first painter to napoleon
-departed from conventions in 2 regards-->
1. depicted a contemporary event from the seven years war; generally history paitning were reserved from stories from the bible or from the classical past
2. painted the figures in modern costumes
-created a dramatic composition from the theatrical clouds to the messenger approaching on the left side of the painting to announce british victory
-gave viewers a unique view of the north american scene which was achieved through landscape and architecture; st lawrence river appears on the right and the steeple represents the cathedral in the city of quebec
-he also depicts a tattooed native american on the left side; his pose situates the event as from the new world
-west potrayed the painting of wolfe as christ like influenced by images of the dead christ
-deliberate association between the dying general wolfe and the dead christ underscores the british officer's admirable qualities
-like christ, wolfe is innocent and died for a worthwile cause --> advancement of british position in north america
-depicted the mortally wounded young english commander just after his defeat of the French in the battle of Quebec in 1759 during the french and indian war , which gave canada to great britain
-west clothed his characters in contemporary costumes and included a rare glimpse for his english audience of a native american warrior, depicted as an exemplary noble savage
-west blended the this realism of detail with the tradition of history painting by arranging his figures in a complex and theoretically ordered composition
-his modern hero dies among grieving officers on the field of victorious battle in a way that suggests the death of a saint
-west wanted to present this hero's death in the service of the state as a martyrdom charged with religious emotions
-his innovative and highly effective combination of the conventions of traditional heroic painting with a look of modern realism influenced history painting well into the 19th century
-edges are soft,colors are muted and theres no hard lines
-yet the subject being depicted is harsh
-the three woman are gleaners, they're going out into the field after the harvest and picking up the leftovers of corn that have fallen
-you can see the great grain stacks in the distance and grain wagon piled very high
-main army of harvesters in the distance all bent over working
-large bundles of grain gathered and on the foreground you see these 3 woman working in a solitary way
-they are trying to feed their families and you can see the small bundles to their right what they have gathered
-you can see the hierarchy--> these woman are large and substantial and in the foreground, giving a sense of importance
-but in a diminished scale, they're far away, and on the main enterprise there are people working and a supervisor on horseback overseeing that operation net even paying attention to the women
-when this painting was shown in the salons in paris, it was criticized bc people were fearful of what would happen if people like this in these circumstances were radicalized and mobilized
-millet has rendered these woman doing harsh labor yet they're not in rags; they seem well fed and strong which send a mixed message
-there is something beautiful about the image in the rhythm between their backs and the landscape embracing them
-millet is giving us a difficult image but softening the blow for us
- Having recently come out of the French Revolution of 1848, these prosperous classes saw the painting as glorifying the lower-class worker.[1] To them, it was a reminder that French society was built upon the labor of the working masse
-this painting was in the exhibition of rejected artwork under emperor napoleon 3 rd reign yet it still caused controversy on what was being portrayed and how it was portrayed
-these figures are modern parisian figures wearing fashionable parisian clothing except for the nude woman (both problems)
-by placing a woman who is nude in this context and since she is not veiled or linked with mythology, she's not a nymph, rather she is a recongizable figure
-manet's model is victorine meurent and the two men are also recognizable figures, giving discomfort for the viewer
-the figures look like actual people you would see on the streets
-other problem is that no-one seems to be interacting
the nude female looks directly at us in a gaze that is calm but direct, returning the viewer's gaze which breaks tradition
-the man on the right gestures toward the figure in the center but the figure in the center seems to gaze absently out of the painting
-odd figure in the background who is too large for where she should be
-all kinds of spatial problems
-ex:woman in the background seems to reach down to scoop something out of the water but she seems to be reaching down to the thumb of the man in the foreground collapsing all traces of depth
-also flat representation of the nude woman; only minor modeling around her breast and under her thigh
-sense of her being outlined in dark grays and blacks
-painting is loosely brushed, no sense of finish; priority at the time was to have finished painting and monet disregarded that
-figure who seems naked and not nude because we have her discarded clothing; her hat in the foreground and she's wearing a kind of ribbon
-shes a modern parisian woman who had discarded her clothing, not a venus
-manet's teasing his viewers giving indication that theres a narrative but not including it so the subject is no longer what is occurring but how the art was created
-hes make a challenge to the authorities who controlled art in france
-a view of the harbor of monet's boyhood home in LeHavre
-fascinated by reflected sunlight on water
-broke with traditional studio practices and painted his impression en plain air using short brushstrokes of pure color on canvas without any preliminary sketch
-recorded the boats, water and sky and made no attempt to disguise the brushstrokes or blend the pigment
-lack of form, lines and shades
-has some semblance of form-> looks like a small boat in the middle with 2 members on board
-there is form for the human brain to interpret the portrait between the short brushstrokes
-gives the illusion of movement when staring at the painting
-degree of ambiguity that solicits subjective perspective
-emphasized composition, saturation and movement of light which caused controversy in the beginning
-tried to capture the breaking dawn of the skies that was also reflected on the harbor waters
-gave an impression of the landscape and not an accurate description
-received criticism bc people believed it was an unfinished work
-when first shown to the public it was disapproved of
-calm feeling of a misty sea
-early morning sun is rising over the foggy harbor and the shadows of the boats and figures and the reflection of the sun's rays can be seen on the water's surface
-uses dull blues and grays in contrast to warm colors in the orange and red in the sky which draws attention to the main focus, the sun
-cranes and heavy machinery can be seen to the right of the painting ; the emissions of the factories, ships and machineries mix with the early rays of the sun to generate a beauty that is surprising and seductive
-brightly illuminous and incredibly complex when it comes to color
-taken earlier traditions of impressionists and imposes on them the science of vision
-interested in this idea of dividing color into its components
-idea of optical mixture-->take 2 different colors, place them together, and the lightwaves mix the color together as your eye receives the light
-sense of parisians outside on a sunny day and sunlight streaming through the trees
-dozens of drawings and oil sketches outside and then goes back to the studio and makes a very composed and structured painting
-wanted his figures to have a kind of solemnity found in the sculptures of the friars of the parthenon so theres sense of timelessness and classicism
-alternating shadow and light
-receding diagonal line that creates an illusion of space
-draws our eye to the surface of the canvas
-lower left corner of the painting, the man is smoking a pipe and leaning on his back and there is volume in his body from all the different strokes of color
-figure has clear contours not seen in impressionism
-figure seems 3 dimensional
-we are in the northwest of paris which was frequented by middle and upper class society; the other side of river was frequented by working class
-question about what seurat is saying about class in paris in 19th century
-ambiguity of class was an issue during this time
-class was important and had always been clear in french society, but this city now had a way of mixing classes
-fashion and clothing now blurred class distinctions that were more clear before
-seurat is confounding the expectations of a typical viewer in the end of the 19th century
-seurat is giving us figures who don't talk to each other or interact; no sense of narrative
-painting was a challenge for the community bc it did not give a narrative or sense of emotion
-when it was first exhibited, it caused a stir
-it was so different and advanced compared to other artists whose most advanced artwork was impressionist technique
-still life was the least important subject; it only flourished in the netherlands for a brief period of time
-image looks simple--> a wine bottle, a basket tipped up to expose a bounty of fruit inside, a plate of stacked cookies or small rolls, and a table cloth both gathered and draped
-if you look closely you begin to notice the odd and purposeful errors
-table seems to be too steeply tipped at the left, so much that the fruit is in danger of rolling off it
-the bottle looks tipsy and the cookies are very odd; they are stacked below the top layer as if they are viewed from the side and at the same time the two at the top seem to pop upward as if we were looking down at them
-cezanne was prompted to rethink the value of various illusionistic techniques that he had inherited from the renaissance and baroque eras
-his perspective seems jumbled; it appears as if he was unable to draw but he was actually drawing according to a new set of rules
-since early renaissance, constructing the illusion of space required the artist remain frozen in a single point in space to maintain consistent recession among all receding orthogonal but cezanne did not agree that this was a full description of the experience of human sight
-concern with representing the true experience of sight; human vision is less like the frozen vision of a camera and more like a video camera
-objects have lost something of their individual character as bottles and fruit and have almost become cylinders and spheres
-he explored his arrangements from different viewpoints to understand three dimensionality and convey the placement of forms relative to the space around them
-interest in the study of volume and solidity is apparent from the disjunctures in the painting
-captured the solidity of each object by juxtaposing color patches
-the subject is apparently benign but he invested it with a charged energy
-he stated in a letter to his brother that he wanted the painting to convey an oppressive atmosphere- a place where one can ruin one's self, go mad, or commit a crime
-he wanted to express the power of darkness in a low drinking spot; in an atmosphere that resembles the devil's furnace
-the room is seen from above and the floor takes up a large portion of the canvas
-ghostlike proprietor stands at the edge of the cafe's billiard table, disengaged from his customers, as they are from each other
-he depicted the billiard table in such a deeply tilted perspective that it threatens to slide out of the painting into the viewer's space
-despair from the figure's stances and the combination of colors used
-The violent colors and the thick texture of paint almost resemble an atmosphere of the devil's furnace
-The five customers in the painting sitting at the table almost seem as if they are drunks, slumped over either from sleepiness of their drunken stupor
-His thick, layered brushwork highlights the intense yellow color that permeates the picture. The blood red walls and the green on the billiard and ceiling contrast and clash with each other.
-The intense yellow color on the floor and on the lights hanging from the ceiling display night as more alive and richly colored than the day
-The harsh colors and disorienting angles evoke a feeling of sadness and loneliness
-painted while he was living in arles
-he had moved to a room at the cafe de la gare, where the room depicted in this painting was
-symbol of the unbearable pressures of modern life on individual people
-image of a man standing on a bridge belongs to the real world
-inspiration for the painting came after munch had experienced a fit of anxiety after walking, intoxicated, across an oslo bridge on a summer evening
-his depiction of the scene departs from visual reality
-evokes a powerful emotional response from the viewer because of the painter's dramatic presentation
-the man in the foreground, simplified to almost skeletal form, emits a primal scream
-the landscape's sweeping curvilinear lines reiterate the shapes of the man's mouth and head, almost like an echo as the cry seems to reverberate through the setting
-the fiery red and yellow stripes give the sky and eerie glow and contribute to the work's resonance
-figure has a skull shaped head, elongated hands, wide eyes, flaring nostrils, and an ovoid mouth
-swirling blue landscape and fiery orange and yellow sky
-composed of 3 main areas:
1. the bridge; extends at a steep angle from the middle distance at the left to fill the foreground
2. the landscape of shoreline or lake and hills
3. the sky; curving lines with tones of yellow, orange, red and blue-green
-human figures are separated from this landscape by the bridge; its linearity provides a contrast with the shapes of the landscape and the sky
-the 2 faceless figures in the background belong to the geometric precision of the bridge while the lines of the foreground figure take up the curving shapes that dominate the background landscape
-refers to a street in barcelona associated with prostitution
-looking at a brothel
-foundation of cubism; radical break that points to the future
-break with these conventions of representation that had for so long been accepted in the west about how you make a body in space and how you create space
-shatters linear perspective, chiaroscuro
-conveys the ideas about sexuality, about the female new, about sexually transmitted diseases
-confrontational painting
-original painting the women were focusing on a male that was included, a sailor that was also a medical student but picasso takes those men out
-the women turn their gaze outward to the viewer directly
-a sailor someone who's in a brothel as a customer who was seated at a table originally; the medical students looks at the women from a more scientific perspective and possibly artistic
-the medical student carried in some sketches a skull; carrying something related to his profession tells us who he is
-the skull is a reminder of death
-tension between the sensuality of the sailor and a moralizing reminder that the pleasures of life are short
-faces of the women on the right are seen as representations of african masks
-figure on the left is an archaic figure going back to ancient spain
-here this is an agglomeration of styles
-there is danger here and the figures are really close to us
-the curtains in between the figures are pressed right up against them; there is no space behind or between them creating some sense of illusion
-three dimensions forms placed on a two dimensional surface makes us look at the central figure as one that were both looking across at but both looking down as if were standing over her while she lies on a bed
-ugliness
-african masks represent danger and is used as an expression of france's colonialism
-these objects were coming to furnace because france had large colonial possessions in africa
-also represented otherness; the needing to go outside the western tradition o express hat the early 20th century and late 19th century feb like is important
-tendency toward expressing the flatness of the picture pale by creating this false illusion
-speaks to the oppressiveness of the academics of the 19th century all weighted on contemporary artists who were seeking a new visual language to represent modern culture
-interesting because the title is the kind of notion a composer uses
-in a way kandinsky is composing here with form still rooted in the stories of the bible and of his particular historical moment
-trying to associate painting with music; like music painting can signify and mean thing without representing anything concrete
-can hear color and see music--> idea of synesthesia; crossing of the senses
-may have wanted us to hear something
-very influenced by arnold schumberg who was challenging familiar western harmonies to create a difficult atonal music
-something atonal and difficult here
-this painting would sound dangerous and chaos
-brilliant color and hazy atmosphere through which color pops
-black diagonal lines that criss cross and almost feel like weapons
-the analogy drawing is one of war; this is 2 years before world war 1 and russian history is filled with political chaos
-verge of abstraction
-recognize some elements from the natural world
-upper right seems to be a mountain and some buildings on it with chimneys or perhaps a church representing an ideal city or heavenly jerusalem
-deeply influenced by biblical imagery which makes sense there is a battle field and horses at war
-can be representation of an apocalypse; a moment when the sins of the world are gonna be washed away
-lower left there is a great flood and the idea of the wave in which god in the old testament wiped man from the earth except for noah and his family
-above the wave cannons are being fired at the atmosphere effect almost looks like the smoke on the battle field
-at the bottom historians recognize the manes and necks of the horses
-he was very interested in the idea of a horse and rider referencing the apocalypse and redemption
-also utopian-idea that we could wash away the old world; world that was about to be destroyed by the russian revolution and the first world war
-he was convinced that he could help leave that in the individual realm
-uses color in a radical way in its own sake which is absolutely new
-attack on the rational
-enter into a really deep open and lonely space, and is this really quiet image
-kind of deserts cape, when ignoring the melting clocks you feel as if you could wither and die there and no-one would care; theres no waves in the water in the background and theres no activity whatsoever
-unbearable sense of quiet and no sense of movement
-desert life and very hot; time has literally melted
-dead tree on the left growing out of something that seems man made and it looks like a table top
-ants seem to be eating and attracted to a piece of metal as opposed to a piece of rotten flesh; eating away at a time piece
-drooping clocks which is provocative because time is something that rules us yet here is responds to the environment as we do
-the way the light is set up especially on the cliff looks like the sunset is nonchalant about another day passing
-the cliffs in the back are the cliffs of the catalonian coast in northern spain where dali is from so this is his childhood
-there is a strange figure looks almost like a profile of a face with extremely long eyelashes and a tongue under the nose; originally looks like a white blanket
-optical illusion
-one object can actually be several thins at once
-idea that the dream was a place where the irrational mind came to the fore unrestricted
-how we perceive what we think is objective reality is really based on how our brain is wired
-dali is thinking about a philosopher named berkson who thought about time as something that was not simply what struck on a clock but that there was something more subjective and that expanded and contracted according to our experience
-here these clocks are trying to point out they are just futile attempts to try to label
-represents america and middle america and small town america
-wood said this was a father and daughter but he modeled them after his dentist and sister
-has many readings as we have idea about what our country is; depends on which side of the political spectrum you're in
-city person--> you think he's mocking people who live in the midwest
-midwestern-->you think he's one of them and captured who they are
-easterners looked at these iowans represented and said thats what they look like and the iowans look at this worried they were being mocked
-farmer and his daughter standing before their simple farm house
-sense of hard working practical people, kind of conservative america
-everything in the painting seems homemade; carpenter gothic house, the apron she wears, his overalls
-this is 1930 and the US is very industrial; this is an archaic image
-confrontation with these figures; they stand right up in front of us and we don't know what he's going to say but his face is about to change and its either going to be a smile or something stern
-he is hard to read
-she looks off at something we can't see outside of the painting
-ambiguity throughout the painting and this is why it is so powerful because americans can see it in what they want
-wood grew up on a farm in aiwa with his family and he was very isolated; he didnt fit in with his family since he was more artistic than masculine compared to his brothers and father
-spent time in paris and munich so he want quite as american as our idea of him
-turning lessons of european traditions on his own people on the american landscape and psyche
-can see influence of northern renaissance in the detailed features of the mans face but the rest of the painting has a sense of geometry seen in the trees
-both real and symbolic
-prosperous moment of the US before the stock market crash; political situation--> in europe the fascists were beginning to take power
-historians see a sense of anti-internationlism
-henri matisse, red room, 20th century, saint petersburg
-shows the influence of post impressionist art but employs intense color juxtapositions for expressive ends
-built on influence on van gogh, but the fauves further liberated color from its descriptive function and explored the effects that different colors have on emotions
-like van gogh was an admirer of japanese art
- outlined his forms in the same manner as van gogh
-like post impressionist monet this painting has no central focus
-influenced by van gogh to start painting with more color intensity (the night cafe) and translate feelings into color and short brush strokes
-followed the ideas of van goth's time-> construction through colored surfaces, experimenting with intensity of color, subject matter being unimportant, and light being expressed through the harmony of brightly colored surfaces

-employed contrasts of vivid green, yellows, and reds by sweeping brushstrokes and bold patterns to release internal feelings
-his canvas is radically different from traditional paintings of domestic interiors
-he depicted objects in simplified and schematized fashion and flattened out the forms
-ex: he eliminated the front edge of the table, rendering the table with its identical patterning as flat as the wall behind it
-the window in the upper left could also be a painting on the wall, further flattening the space
-colors contrast richly and intensly; he overpaints to reveal the importance of color
-it was originally green, then he repainted to blue and then red did he feel he found the right color for the harmony he wished to compose
-uses color as a form of expression most responsible for pictorial coherence and primary conveyor of meaning
-choose compositions and colors that express their feelings