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Microbiology: Antimicrobial Drugs - Chapter 20
Terms in this set (19)
What microbiologist is credited for developing the idea of the magic bullet? What is it?
The magic bullet was created by Ehrlich. The idea is that chemicals could be used to target pathogens but not the host.
What substance was found that controlled streptococcal infections in mice?
Sulfanilamide-containing dye was able to control streptococcal infections in mice.
What scientists led the discovery of antibiotics?
Flemings saw the growth of Staphylococcus aureus inhibited by mold contamination.
What is the difference between antimicrobial drugs and antibiotic drugs?
Antimicrobial drugs work against microorganisms in general, while antibiotics work specifically against bacteria.
Antimicrobial drugs can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic. What does this mean?
Bactericidal means it kills bacteria. Bacteriostatic means it stops the growth of bacteria.
Antibacterial drugs have major modes of action. What is penicillins major mode of action?
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
Antibacterial drugs have major modes of action. What is tetracyclines major mode of action?
Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Antibacterial drugs have major modes of action. What is quinolones' major mode of action?
Inhibition of nucleic acid replication.
Antibacterial drugs have major modes of action. What is polymyxin B's major mode of action?
Injury to the plasma membrane.
Antibacterial drugs have major modes of action. What is sulfanilamide's major mode of action?
Inhibition of essential metabolite synthesis.
What are cephalosporins?
Any group of semisynthetic antibiotics that resemble penicillin.
What significant difference do first generation (gen) cephalosporins have to fourth gen cephalosporins?
First gen cephalosporins have a lower-spectrum/narrow level of activity against bacteria. Fourth gen cephalosporins require injections; has the most extended spectrum of activity.
Why is it difficult to target viruses with drugs?
They live as obligate intracellular parasites.
Viruses are targeted in the five following ways:
1) Entry and fusion inhibitors.
2) Inhibitors of uncoating, genome integration and nucleic acid synthesis.
3) Interference of Assembly and Release
4) Exit inhibitors
This antiprotozoan drug is largely used to treat illness caused by protozoa.
This antiprotozoal drug is effective against strict anaerobic bacteria.
List the medications used to treat disease caused by the different helminths. (Antihelminthic drugs)
- Niclosamide treats disease caused by tapeworms.
- Praziquantel treats disease caused by fluke worms.
- Ivermectin treats diseases caused by worms, ticks, and mites.
List the mechanisms of resistance bacteria use to ward off attack.
1) Destroy enzymes or inactivate drugs
2) Prevent penetration to target site.
3) Alter the target site.
4) Rapid efflux of the drug.
5) Misuse of antibiotics.
What enzyme destroys penicillin before it targets pathogens?
Betalactamase destroys penicillin.
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