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Chapter 24 DNA Viruses
Terms in this set (45)
dsDNA virus families
Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae
DNA virus families
Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Hepadnaviridae
What diseases are caused by the DNA virus family Poxviridae?
Smallpox and other Poxviruses
Which DNA virus families contain envelopes and which ones do not?
Enveloped families are Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Hepadnaviridae. Papillomaviridae does not have envelopes
How does an infection usually occur with Family Poxviridae viruses?
Inhalation and close contact
Which human disease was the first one to be eradicated?
Smallpox in 1980
What is the scientific name for Smallpox?
What are some factors that enabled the eradication of smallpox?
Inexpensive, stable, effective vaccine (bifurcated needle). No animal reservoirs, obvious symptoms, lack of asymptomatic cases, spreads by close contact
Who used cowpox to immunize people against smallpox?
Which virus contains a fusion protein in their envelopes?
Human Herpesvirus 1 and 2
What does the fusion protein do?
Allows the virus to fuse with host cell membrane.
What is syncytia formation?
Fusion of neighboring cells, formation of multinucleate cells called syncytia. Syncutia allows the virus to spread and also avoid host antibodies
Which DNA virus is the most prevalent?
Which family of viruses is often latent where it remains inactive inside infected cells for years?
What was the older name for HHV?
Herpes Simplex Virus HSV
Most cases of oral herpes is caused by which strain?
90% of oral herpes is caused by HHV-1
What is an indicator of the oral herpes virus?
cold sores on lips
Genital herpes is mostly caused by which strain of the herpes virus?
85% caused by HHV-2
What is an indicator of genital herpes?
lesions on genitalia
What is ocular herpes and which strain is it usually caused by?
Occurs usually only in one eye. Latent HHV-1 that has been reactivated
What is the disease where the virus enters through cuts or breaks in the skin of a finger and is most common is health care workers?
Herpetic Whitlow. HHV-1 or HHV-2
Can an infected pregnant woman with herpes pass it to her newborn during childbirth?
Yes, it can cross placenta but is rare. Can cause Neonatal herpes and can be severe. Baby would be infected with direct close contact
What is the usual source of infection on someone with the Herpes virus?
What are some ways HHV-1 can be transmitted?
casual contact in children, some contact sports. Close contact
How are HHV-2 infections usually transmitted?
Which strain causes the Varicella-Zoster Virus?
Human Herpesvirus 3
What is the scientific name for chickenpox?
What is the scientific name for Shingles?
How can a person get shingles?
HHV-3 virus from chickenpox is reactivated as the virus remain latent in the body until reactivation.
Can the shingles virus be contagious to others?
the virus can be transmitted to someone by blisters with a clear fluid by direct contact with the infected person
Which virus is caused by the Human Herpesvirus 4?
Epstein-Barr virus, including Infectious Mononucleosis
Which strain of HHV causes Infectious Mononucleosis and how is it transmitted?
HHV4 the Epstein-Barr virus. Transmission by saliva.
Infectious Mononucleosis initially infects which part of the body?
Infects epithelium of pharynx and salivary glands. Virus enters bloodstream and invades B lymphocytes.
Which DNA virus causes HPV?
What symptom is caused by HPV?
Papillomas most common type of warts
How many types of HPV specifically affect the genital area?
>40 types affect the genital area but more than 100 types of HPV exist
How is HPV transmitted?
direct skin-to-skin contact including sex
What two specific types of HPV are the cause of cervical cancer in woman?
HPV types 16 and 18
What is the only DNA virus for Hepatitis?
Hepatitis B (HBV) from the family Hepadnaviridae
What is the number one problem with the virus that causes HBV?
The virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days
What does HBV do to the body organs?
Causes inflammation of the liver possible severe liver damage and can cause yellowing of the eyes due to excess bilirubin
How is the Hepatitis B virus spread to others?
Virus can shed into saliva, semen, vaginal secretions. Can spread by sexual intercourse, sharing needles (ex: tattoos), and passage to babies during birth
What are some symptoms that can arise as a result of liver function disturbance?
Jaundice, liver enlargement, abdominal distress, bleeding into skin and internal organs
Which hepatitis infection is the primary cause of liver cancers?
Hepatitis B from Hepadnaviridae
Which Hepatitis virus needs HBV to infect people?
Hepatitis D HDV
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