AP World History Period 3 (600 to 1450)
Terms in this set (135)
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258
The feudal japan occurred in the country's breakup in the 1500s: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Ashikaga (1336-1573). The shougunates were feudal systems, in which the shogun shared power with landowning warlords called daimyo. Like the knightly aristocracy medieval Europe, the shogun and daimyo came came from a warrior class known as the samurai.
Ruler of the Islamic empire
Centralized Indian Empire created by Muslim invaders, 1206-1526
Islamic Spain. they developed a unique culture blending Islamic, Roman, Germanic, Arab, Berber, and Jewish traditions. Large cities grew (Cordoba, Seville, Toledo, and Granada) with new architectural styles. Agricultural surpluses helped support the large urban populations.
(c.1056-1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam.
a peninsula in southwestern Asia that forms the Asian part of Turkey
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Seagoing Scandinavians known for raiding coastal communities in Denmark, France, and the British Isles from the 8th to 11th centuries. They settled in northern Europe and developed trade routes to the Mediterranean. In the East were known as the Varangians and traded slaves, amber, timber, fish, fur and other products with the merchants of the Byzantine Empire.
Pillars of Islam
obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.
Mohammad's flight from Mecca to Medina
large church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul
the code of law derived from the Quran and from the teachings and example of Muhammad
tax paid by people of the book (Christians and Jews) who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies.
This system enforced by Chinese empires requiring leaders of countries in East and Southeast Asia not under their direct control to acknowledge the superiority of the emperors in China in exchange for trading rights or strategic alliances
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to the Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization
a school for the study of Muslim law and religion
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.
The famous Islamic scientist and philosopher who organized the medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into the Canon of Medicine
This was the fourteenth century pandemic of the bubonic plague brought west by the Mongols. The rats and fleas that carry the bacterial disease moved with those fleeing the Mogol siege of the Black Sea city of Kaffa. Over 30 percent of the populations in the Latin West and the Muslim world died.
Gutenberg's Printing Press
Johann Gutenberg perfected this for languages in the Latin West by 1454 when he printed a Bible using movable type and a new kind of lasting ink.
Indian Ocean trading network
It is also known as the Sea Roads and represented the world's largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 CE. The maritime commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa, growing out of the vast environmental and cultural diversities of the Indian Ocean region. Transportation costs were lower than the Silk Roads and ships allowed the shipment of larger and heavier cargoes. It included the exchange of luxury and especially bulk goods, but in addition also included the exchange of ideas and crops.
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes. Southeast Asian kingdom (670-1025_ based on the island of Sumatra that used a powerful navy to dominate the trade conducted through the Straits of Malacca.
A massive stone monument on the Indonesian island of Java, erected by the Sailendra kings around 800 C.E. The winding ascent through ten levels, decorated with rich relief carving, is a Buddhist allegory for the progressive stages of enlightenment
Yi dynasty in Korea
Established in 1392, these people worked to bring back Korean culture after several hundred years of Mongol domination. They revived the study of Confucian classics and helped farmers use the latest Chinese technology. Han-gul, the Korean phonetic alphabet, was created. Koreans also exported cotton to China and Japan from the surplus made possible by use of a type of cotton gin developed during the Song dynasty.
An East African Civilization that emerged in the eighth century CE from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements
city, now in ruins whose many stone structures were built between about 1250-1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state
A term used to describe the routes of the trans-Sahara trade in Africa. The trade routes spread across the Sahara Desert and served to link North Africa and the Mediterranean world with the land and peoples of interior West Africa.
Formed by 8th century by exchanging gold from the forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa. Camels, were introduced tcreating better trade. By 3rd century C.E. it rose to power by taxing the salt and gold exchanged within its borders. 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power. Almoravid armies invaded Ghana from north Africa (1076), the power was declining despite the kingdom's survival. 13th century, new states rose.
Political system in western Africa from the 13th to 15th centuries. Famous for it's Muslim rulers like Mana Kankan Musa, who made the maji to Mecca. Musa inflated the price of gold in Cairo when he distributed gold coins to the poor
The Songhai Empire was the largest and last of the three major pre-colonial empires to emerge in West Africa. From its capital at Gao on the Niger River, Songhai expanded in all directions until it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to what is now Northwest Nigeria and central Niger. Gao, Songhai's capital, which remains to this day a small Niger River trading center, was home to the famous Goa Mosque and the Tomb of Askia, the most important of the Songhai emperors. The cities of Timbuktu and Djenne were the other major cultural and commercial centers of the empire.
Trans-Saharan slave trade
A smaller slave trade along the Sand Roads; slaves were taken during raids on independent states and clans. They were mostly used in Islamic households in North Africa. They were often sold beyond Africa as well, into other countries and regions.
an empire formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that the conquered through their mastery of firearms: Ottoman, Safavids, and the Mughal.
Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern china; united all of northeren China and reconquered Southern China.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. The Tang emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
Empire in southern China (1127-1279; the 'Southern Song') while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
began Tang Dynasty - 700, eventually spread to all classes, feet bound on girls at 6 years old, status symbol - only rich could afford to do it, symbol of femininity
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka
Khitan: Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture, brought the end of the Song dynasty.
forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Founders of Qin kingdom(Jin) that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced the Song to flee south.
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies. Stopped Chinese rule in China, helped extend Chinese influence
military commander that led an uprising of Eastern China for almost a decade (875-884) that helped to bring the Tang to a close
significance: Weakened the Tang empire, leading to its demise
Battle of Talas River
At the Battle of Talas River, 751 CE, the army of the Tang Empire was defeated by a coalition of Muslim forces in Central Asia. Chinese paper makers were captured and brought to Baghdad, where production of books increased dramatically.
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 40 CE; revolt broke out in 39 CE. The sisters demonstrate the importance of Vietnamese women in the developments of attitude and actions toward Chinese domination.
apanese statesman (572-622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; he is best known for the Seventeen Article Constitution
(Formulated 14th century) Way of the Warrior for Japanese samurais; defined service and conduct appropriate to their status
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty. ALSO known as Tang Jian, Was murdered by his son (the Yangdi Emperor)
Eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion', an early name fro Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes. Later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and is now known as Istanbul
Compilation of Roman law
System in which the temporal ruler extends his own power to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks.
Siege of Constantinople
The Ottoman Empire(Sultan conquered Constantinople in 1453. Through expansion into the Balkans and the Mediterranean the Ottoman empire gained political stability. From a European perspective this event ended the Middle Ages and gave way for the Renaissance.
Battle of Manzikert
A battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks (Muslims) in 1071, where the Byzantine lost; as a result, the Byzantine asked Europe for help.The turkish victory allowed them to take over most of the anatolian peninsula
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Eastern Christian church which was created in 1053 after the schism from the western Roman church; its head is the patriarch of Constantinople. Major differences between it and Catholicism are, priests can marry, leavened bread, and investiture of priests (who can be a priest)
religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.
William the conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England. First time England was not isolated.
also known as the East-West Schism, was the event that divided "Chalcedonian" Christianity into Western (Roman) Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy 1054
King of the Franks (c. 768-814); Emperor (c. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Holy Roman Empire
A major political institution in Europe that lasted from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries (962-1806). It was loosely organized and modeled somewhat on the ancient Roman Empire. It included great amounts of territory in the central and western parts of Europe. Charlemagne was its first emperor.
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families
Split in 1054 C.E. on account of differences in church leadership, languages, religious images and the filioque
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation
'selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme
A very large flat bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.
A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies.
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century
Created a centralized hierarchy in the Xiongnu government and transformed the empire into a more imperialistic and formidable state with a powerful army
A nomadic people in Central Asia and Persia who arrived before the Mongols. Mongol arrival → their people merged into the Mongol state. Resumed expansion as Mongol power declined
African people inhabiting the highlands of Kenya and Tanzania and having a largely pastoral economy and a society based on the patrilineal clan.
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia
(1170s - 1227) from 1206 khagan of all Mongol tribes; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions. successful military leader, united mongol tribes, was the founder of the mongol empire (1206-1368)
the Mongol World War
term used to describe half a century of military campaigns, massive killing, and empire building pursued by chinggis khan and his successors in Eurasia after 1209
Yuan Dynasty China
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire.
Khubilai's brother who conquered the Abbasid dynasty and established the Ilkhanate of Persia. Captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad after besieging it in 1258. Attempted to capture Syria but was expelled by Egyptian Muslims, who stopped Muslim expansion to the southwest
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows
Kipchak Khanate/Golden Horde
Mongol Khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. killing one-third Europe's population
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Holy land for Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad calphate
Capital of Umayyads (established by Abd al Rahman) in Spain; became known as the center for learning and intellectual life because of its libraries, was also widely tolerant of "the people of the book".
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca
Capital of the Holy Roman Empire
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous library and the Museum- a center for leading scientific and literacy figures.
(1336-1573) was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyo, and the military power of the shogunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyo increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare
Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
China's capital city during the Song dynasty, with a population of more than a million people
Technological Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Technological advances such as compass, the lateen sail, and the astrolabe led to increasing travel in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean
(632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
Muslim land, where Muslims reside, house of Muslims
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi rivers. It was begun in the Han Dynasty and finished in the Sui Dynasty
Name the Japan's period where power was centralized in Fujiwara family; boys only received a formal education based on Chinese values; women contributed to Japanese literature
Warlord rulers who divided Japan into 300 little kingdoms
a hereditary military dictator of Japan, established in place of an emperor, fraction ed imperial rule.
Basic concept refers to the political and social order of medieval Europe; based on a hierarchy of lords and vassals who controlled political and military affairs
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy. Nobles fed up with King John made him sign Great Charter (Magna Carta) that made sure king got approval of aristocracy before imposing taxes, etc, limited king's power
A 13th century Venetian merchant who travelled the land and sea silk routes during the time of the Pax Mongolica. His travel book detailed his experiences working in the Yuan Empire, the Mongol domain in China and inspired many Europeans, including Columbus, to find faster trade routes to Asia
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith
The political and economic stability provided by Mongol control of trade routes in the 13th and 14th centuries. The Mongols established post houses along the routes to patrol the roads, and they gave passports to ease travel for officials and vistors.
1299 - Osman is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and it is from him that its inhabitants, the Turks, called themselves Osmanli until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1822. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, and eastern Europe.
non-arab converts to Islam
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico (1200 BCE); featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems. Was the basis for Mesoamerican traditions (Aztec, Maya, etc. )
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran.
These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Floating gardens, raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yield
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Prince Vladimir of Kiev
He was the Russian prince who selected Greek Orthodoxy as the national religion. This added cultural bonds to the Byzantine Empire to the already existing commercial ties
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic church authorities as a reward for a pious act, Martin Luther's protest (95 thesis) against the sale of indulgences is often seen as the start of the Protestant Reformation
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) that followed Mongol rule and expanded Chinese dominance in East and Southeast Asia. Successfully managed trade with Japanese and Spanish merchants to import silver once this government required that all taxes be paid in silver. This pull of silver toward the Chinese economy dramatically altered the global economy.
mystics within Islam... responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
Quick growing rice that can allow two harvest in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa (south Vietnam) from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam. (570-632 C.E.)
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
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