What problems were the Abbasid facing from Shi'a opposition?
- revolts and assassination attempts
What problem continued to go on even after the death of Al-Mahdi
-Arguing about who will the successor
Who did Harun al-Rashid become heavily dependent upon during his reign?
- a family of persian advisors
what problems began surfacing in the royal court of the Muslim Empire that was very similar to problems China felt during the Han Dynasty?
- advisers got more and more powerful; people on the thrown turned into figure heads
What occured after Harun's death?
-several full scale civil wars over succession
What became the solution to potential heirs to the Muslim Empire in regards to civil war?
-build personal armies
How did slave mercenaries play a role in the decline of the Abbasids?
- 846 c.e. slave mercenaries murdered the reigning caliph -mercenaries became a major force for social unrest.
List the three causes for the Muslim Empire's treasure have on Muslim people?
- constant civil violence - construction of public works - the armies needed more money
What affect did the low funds in the treasury have on Muslim people?
-people had to pay taxes - great irrigation works needed for agriculture broke down and in some areas collapsed entirely. -peasants perished due to famine, flood, or violent assaults - others fled to wilderness areas - some formed bandit gangs
What two things become common practices in gender relations during the Abbasid era?
- the harem - women wearing a veil.
What is a harem?
- wives and slaves are confined to a certain part of the home
How were female slaves treated in comparison to freeborn women?
- more personal freedom - could win their freedom and gain power by bearing healthy sons for rulers - learned more
What difference was there in gender relations between lower class and upper class women?
- lower class women could have jobs and upper class could not.
What took place in 945 in the Muslim Empire?
- Buyids captured Baghdad
What does sultan translate to mean?
What group replaced the Buyids around 1055?
- seljuk turks -kill a lot of the Shi'a and Byzantines
What two things allowed the First Crusade to become a success
- muslim political division - element of surprise
Who would successfully lead the Muslims during the end of the 12th century?
- salah- ud din
List the areas of influence the Muslims had on Europe after the Crusades?
- new weaponry - techniques of building fortifications - modern medicine
What language nearly replaced Arabic entirely in Muslim culture?
What two works are considered masterpieces of Muslim writing?
- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam - Shan- hama; ferdaissi firawsi
What advances did Muslims make in the field of math?
- algebra, geometry, trigonometry
What discoveries were found in the field of chemistry?
- creation of objective experiment - Razi's scheme of classifying all material
Why did Cairo's hospitals have the best physicians?
- doctors had to pass a course of study and end of course test in order to practice.
What trend emerged in the Muslim religious community after the Crusades?
- suspicious of non- Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
What did sufis seek?
- wondering mystics who sought personal union with Allah.
What group began invading the Abbasid empire in the early 13th century and who led these people?
- Mongols -Chinggis Khan
Who took control of this group later during the 1250s and took the capital Baghdad?
Who were the Mamluks?
- Turkic slaves who then ruled Egypt - defeated Mongols in late 1200s
How were the HIndu and Muslim faiths in direct opposition to one another?
- Islam is much more structured - Hindu is more flexible
what was the first contact between Muslim and HIndu groups around 711?
- peaceful trading contacts - attack by sind pirates on same arab traders.
How did Mahmud of Ghazni affect northern India?
- began to invade and raid northern India
Where did these Muslims place their capitol? Why is this significant?
- Delhi - not associated with the Umayyads or the abbasids
Where did most Indian converts to Islam come from?
- Buddhists or low cast groups and untouchables. - shudras
Why did India become a place of refuge for many Muslims around the 13th and 14th centuries?
- Mongols and tinerants are invading the middle east - Muslims are running for their lives to India
What sort of social relationship did Hindus ave with their Muslim conquerors?
- saw them as out castes; animosity; did not interact with them
Explain what the majority of HIndus believe would happen to their Muslim conquerors as had happened to previous invading groups.
- they would be absorbed
How were women in India affected by the Muslim invasion?
- sati; widows threw themselves onto their husbands dead burning bodies - lost a lot of rights - widows couldn't remarry
After Hundus realized the Muslim faith was not going to be absorbed what did they resort to in order to keep more people from converting to Islam?
- put a greater emphasis on devotion - Bhaktic cults included women and untouchables - for personal relationships with gods or goddesses
How did these cults stem the flow of converts to Islam?
- increase involvement in Hindu worship in all groups
Why did neither the Muslims or Hindus of India really absorb the other?
- Both worked hard to keep themselves seperate
What group prevented the spread of Muslim ideas in the Southeast Asia?
what city played a vital role in the spread of Islam across Southeast Asia?
Why were the Sufis so successful in converting people?
- they varied in personality and approach - allowed people of southeast Asia to keep some ideas of the various religions in the area
how were women treated in this are of Muslim control?
- much stronger status in family and community than other areas - lineage still traced through the woman