IB Psychology Key Terms
Terms in this set (83)
Evidence gathered via direct observation or experimentation
Researchers are unbiased when drawing conclusions from findings
Descriptions of variables that are quantifiable and specific
The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results (replicable)
Being logically and factually sound
If you use the same method in the same situation you achieve the same results (test-retest)
Concerned with quality of research (whether observed effects in the study are the cause of the IV or extraneous variables)
Concerned with how appropriate it is to apply the result of the study to the intended population
the extent to which the measure appears (at face value) to test what it claims to.
When participants guess the nature of the research they are participating in and then act accordingly
When participants try to perform in a way that they think meets the expectations of the researcher
When participants act in such a way it might sabotage their research
When an experiment is carried out in a pure, free from the influence of unwanted variables environment
To preserve the reputation of psychology in the academic world and among the public
Participants have been made aware of the purpose, duration and procedures of the research; and of their rights, benefits and any possible negative consequences of participation
(unless justified) when the participant isn't fully aware or given false information of the procedure
The nature, results and conclusions of research need to be made available to participants as soon as possible
Confidentiality/Right to withdraw
Fabrication of data
Data that is made up (unacceptable)
Everyone in target population has an equal chance of selection
Based on connivence, availability at the time and willingness
Identified target and workout proportions needed for sample to be representative
Population divided into groups and each group sampled
People picked that fit the specific need or purpose of the study
When the researcher asks the participants to invite other people they to know to participate
Used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or statistics
Exploratory. Used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions and motivations
a test under controlled conditions made to either demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.
a study in which the degree of relatedness between two sets of scores are tested
When researchers take advantage of a pre-existing/naturally occurring irregularities by obtaining detailed information about the participant's condition
Theory of Evolution
Charles Darwin (1859) on the Origin of Species
Responsible for the secretion of hormones
when participants display improvements, on the belief that it has beneficial powers even though it has none.
The belief that certain parts of the brain are responsible for specific facets of personality or behavior (Franz Joseph Gall 1758-1828)
Specific area of the brain responsible for the production of speech
Temporary or permanent inability to produce language
Inability to comprehend speech
Graphical representation of the activity from each electrode placed on the outside of a persons head. The electrodes detect changes in electrical activity.
Computed Tomography (CT)
Scanner combines computer and x-ray technology. Shows brain at any depth. Can show structural changes in the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
The signal from a scanner can be transformed into a visual representation of the area being studied
Similar to MRI but additionally it can map metabolic changes that indicate brain activity
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Injection of radioactive substance in participant. Metabolic signals are turned into a computer image that displays a colorful map of activity in different areas of the brain.
The concept that, although localization of function occurs, the specific location of a function is not necessarily fixed for all individuals and the are of brain dedicated to certain functions can be redistributed according to environmental demands.
Method by which messages are sent through the central nervous system
The variable that is manipulated
The variable that is measured
The body's natural chemical messengers which transmit information from one neuron to another.
Reabsorption of neurotransmitter molecules back into the neuron it came from
a chemical neurotransmitter in the brain, important for learning and the experience of pleasure and reward
A chemical that is manufactured in the body and acts as a neurotransmitter. Responsible for mood regulations
A stress hormone produced within the adrenal gland that quickens the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction
Fight or Flight
Adrenaline prepares the body for action. Helps deal with possible threat
A hormone with a role in the cycle of sleep, secreted from the pineal gland.
Known as love/trust hormone
It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations - that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution
Behavior that has helped a species survive and reproduce
The Bell Curve
A frequency curve where most occurrences take place in the middle of the distribution and taper off on either side. Related to IQ
The scientific study of people mind and behavior
Refers to all mental structures and processes involved in the reception, storage and use of knowledge
Scientific study of external behavior. Began in USA. B.F. Skinner
Basic form of learning (Pavlov, 1928)
a form of learning that is determined by consequences that either reinforce or punish particular behaviours, that can increase or decrease the probability of the behaviour.
The paring of two stimuli that forms a basis of classical conditioning
Learning by observing and imitating others
Concerned with the scientific study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes.
Cognitive structures which organize our objects, events, ourselves and others
All knowledge is organized into units
The transmission of a story, piece of knowledge, etc., by being passed on repeatedly from one person to another, especially with reference to the alterations made to the original message during such transmission
Repeated recall by the same person over time
Refers to the process of making something conform to the cultural expectations of the individual
the capacity to encode, retain, store and retrieve information.
the relatively elongated portion of a neuron between the cell body and the terminals which provides the signal pathway for a nerve impulse.
branched fibres at the end of the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulses
the nerve impulse that travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmittersinto a synapse.
part of brain responsible for movement and balance
part of brain responsible for memory
part of brain responsible for sense of touch
part of brain responsible for processing of visual information
part of brain involved in motor controls and cognitive processes
part of brain that contains auditory cortex
part of brain that regulates basic bodily processes including breathing and the heartbeat.
part of brain responsible for eating disorders