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Microbiology Exam 4
Terms in this set (85)
Two types of immunity
1. Innate (natural, born with)
2. Adaptive (acquired)
examples of innate/natural immunity
2. mucus membranes
3. pH of stomach
4. Phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils)
what are the most phagocytic cells in the blood?
neutrophils and macrophages
cells of the adaptive immune response
T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes
cells of the innate immune response
neutrophils, monocyte macrophages, eosinophils, basophils
the first cell the enter the site of an infection is...
cells that enter site of infection after 24 hrs
a stationary phagocytic cell present in connective tissue
phagocytic cells specific to the liver
phagocytic cells specific to the lungs
4 stages of phagocytosis
2. Ingestion (phagosome)
3. Fusion (with a lysosome)
a group of proteins found in blood that are responsible for lysis of bacteria, increased phagocytosis and inflammation
what are the two complement pathways?
1. Classical pathway - activated by antigen/antibody complexes
2. alternate pathway - activated by bacteria cell wall sugars
component of complement pathway that increases adherence
chemical mediators that are initially released to signal the inflammatory response by attracting neutrophils
proteins that interfere with viral replication. They are released by cells after they have been infected with a virus
foreign substance that enters the body, and is able to evoke an immune response.
type of cells that are responsible for producing antibodies
type of cells in the adaptive immune response that are best at eliminating intra-cellular infections
events leading to B cells generating antibodies
B cell comes in contact with its specific antigen and proliferates. Some B cells differentiate into memory cells, and some differentiate into plasma cells that secrete antibodies into circulation
How do antibodies eliminate infection?
1. It can act as an opsonin
2. It can activate complement
3. It can block binding
which antibodies (immunoglobulins) are classified as monomers
IgG, IgD, IgE
what configuration are IgM and IgA
IgA is a dimer (two monomers) and IgM is a pentamer
functions of T helper cells
1. immunity to intracellular bacteria
2. help macrophages kill
3. help cytotoxic T cells kill virally infected cells
4. help B cells make antibody
type of adaptive immune system cell that kills virally infected cells and malignant cells
T cytotoxic cells
infection of the meninges caused by bacteria or virus
infection of the brain, mostly caused by virus
how is meningitis transmitted?
Neisseria meningitidis gram stain
Gram negative cocci
Hemophilus influenzae (type b) gram stain
gram negative pleomorphic rod
Streptococcus pneumoniae gram stain
gram positive cocci
Group B Streptococci
gram positive cocci
How is Listeria monocytogenes transmitted, and what is gram stain?
foodborne, like unpasteurized cheese and cold cuts and in utero. it has an affinity for the placenta. It is gram positive rod.
infection with this can lead to spontaneous abortions in pregnant women
viral meningitis is caused by...
echoviruses and enteroviruses
how is viral meningitis transmitted?
how is viral encephalitis transmitted?
biological vector (mosquito)
why can the rabies vaccine be given after infection?
it has to replicate in the muscle tissue, which takes about 28 days, until it travels up to the brain
bacteria commonly found in soil and is associated with deep puncture wounds
bacteria associated with home canned food
clostridium tetani and botulinum gram stain
gram positive rod
an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
most common type of nosocomial infection
UTI (specifically cystitis)
most common cause of cystitis
one of the most common STI's, in about 3 million cases in the US per year
STI in which symptoms do not appear in men, and only 50% of time in women
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gram stain
gram negative, kidney shaped diplococci
STI in which males usually show symptoms and females are asymptomatic 50% of the time
most common cause of salpingitis (inflammation of fallopian tubes), Pelvic inflammatory disease, and neonatal blindness
how is syphilis transmitted?
enters through abrasions during sexual contact
3 stages of syphilis
1. Primary stage - incubation, genital ulcers
2. Secondary stage - sore throat, rash
3. Tertiary state - can occur ten years later, infects CNS, heart and liver
STI known as the "silent disease" that is the leading cause of PID
gram stain of streptococcus pyogenes and transmission
droplet transmission, gram positive cocci
Corynebacterium diphtheriae gram stain
gram positive, pleiomorphic
how does diphtheria affect the respiratory tract?
kills cells in upper respiratory tract that will clump together and form a "matt" that suffocates the victim
croup, inflammation of trachea
bordetella pertussis gram stain
gram negative, coccobacillus
Streptococcus pneumoniae mode of transmission
Candida albicans disease
Trichomonas vaginalis disease
Gardnerella vaginalis disease
mycobacterium gram stain
worse part of tuberculosis
can be inhaled and the body can't eliminate them, so they become walled off (tubercles) which can break open later in life and be reactivated
cells clump together
most common viral resp. disease among infants
respiratory syncytial virus
how does influenza adapt?
antigenic shift - new H or N protein, from shuffling RNA in a different host
antigenic drift - mutation in H protein
type of genetic info in influenza
intoxication vs. infection
intoxication is when you have ingested an enterotoxin, which will show a rapid onset because it doesn't need to reproduce. infection is when you ingest the bacteria and they must grow and produce the toxins. (delayed onset)
inflamed intestinal tract
loss of water/electrolytes
like diarrhea, but stool also contains blood and mucus
how is H. pylori transmitted (stomach ulcers)
most common cause of food borne illness
most common cause of death due to food borne illness
reservoirs of salmonella
animals, fowls, pets, eggs
how is cholera transmitted?
gram stain of vibrio cholera
gram negative, pleomorphic
leading cause of bacterial diarrhea in the US
campylobacter jejuni gram stain
gram negative, curved rod
reservoir of campylobacter jejuni
how is Hepatitis A transmitted?
fecal-oral route, food handlers
how is Hepatitis B transmitted?
blood, semen, saliva
how is Hepatitis C transmitted?
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