Cognitive structures. "blue prints" of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experiences.
In infancy, child learns about object existence as permanent. If they cannot see it, it does not exist.
Preoperational Skill (2-7)
Language skills develop, egocentric approach, children think symbolically.
Concrete Operational Skill (7-11)
Children perform concrete operations. Thinking tied to concrete objects, people, events.
Understanding things like volume are unchanged, even if container is changes. (volume, mass, weight)
study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
a time of special sensitivity to specific types of learning, which shapes the capacity for future development.
innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first large moving object seen.
Insecure (Avoidant and Ambivalent) Attachment
children become distressed when parents leave but do not feel comforted when they return.
both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. they encourage open discussion when making the rules and allow exceptions.
Permissive (indifferent or indulgent) parenting
parents submit to their children's desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.