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51 terms

AP Psych Ch. 15 Vocab

Ch. 15 Psych Vocab, Mrs. Rocke, Psychology 8th edition by David Myers, Worth Publishers
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personality
individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, the id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
ego
largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
superego
part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
pyschosexual stages
childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on direct erogenous zones
erogenous zones
oral (mouth-sucking, biting, chewing), anal (bowel/bladder-elimination, coping with demands for control), phallic (genitals-coping with incestuous sexual feelings), latency (dormant sexual feelings), genital (maturation of sexual interests
oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
identification
process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
fixation
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
regression
psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, ppl may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
projection
psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism by which ppl disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet, see sublimation
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
psychodynamic theory
an approach to personality development, based largely on the ideas of Sigmund Freud, which holds that much of behaviour is governed by unconscious forces. (a theory)
projective test
personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
thematic apperception test (TAT)
projective test in which ppl express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
rorschach inkblot test
most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify ppl's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditioned positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
self-concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
trait
characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Myers-Briggs type indicator
126 question test that attempts to sort ppl according to Carl Jung's personality types, feeds info in complimentary terms, every type has strengths
factor analysis
identify clusters of behavior that correlate,2 dimensions: extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability
introversion
tend to be more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable, not necessarily loners, tend to have smaller circles of friends, have an easier time solving things inside their head than extroverts, does not describe social discomfort but rather social preference
extroversion
tend to be gregarious, assertive, and interested in seeking out excitement, tend to think out loud and cannot solve things in their heads as well as introverts
personality inventory
questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which ppl respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
empirically derived test
test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
big 5 factors
consientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion
reciprocal determinism (triadic reciprocality)
interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
internal locus of control
perception that one controls one's own fate
external locus of control
perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's own fate
learned helplessness
hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
self-esteem
one's feeling of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
readiness to perceive oneself favorably
preconscious
thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious
sublimation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet, see displacement
collectivism
emphasizes family and work group goals
individualism
emphasizes personal achievement
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context