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Mic 223 Final Exam (Nelson)
Terms in this set (45)
Neisseria found in?
Urethra, cervix, rectum, throat
Vibrio cholera found in?
Small intestine walls
Streptococcus pneumoniae found in?
Nasopharynx: respiratory tract, sinuses and nasal cavity
Mycobacterium TB found in?
Respiratory system (lungs)
What type of parasites are HIV, HPV, Bacillus anthrax and Coxiella burnetti?
What type of parasites are Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae?
Pathogen's ability to create infection?
Organism's ability to cause disease?
Degree of host's damage caused by microbe?
Steps on how pathogens cause damage? (4 steps)
1. Enters body.
2. Pass host defenses for infectivity
3. Replicate/colonize to make disease
4. Pathogen spreads or secretes toxins
Protein enzyme made by several microorganisms that helps fibrinogen convert to fibrin? (Used in lab to identify staphylococcus)
Enzyme that breaks collagen's peptide bonds and helps to destroy extracelullar structures in pathogenesis of bacteria like Clostridium? (Also considered virulence factor, help spread gas gangrene)
Enzyme compounded by pharmacies to cause hydrolysis breakdown of hyaluronic acid? (Often called reversal agent for fillers)
Used to dissolve blood clots in blood vessels for legs and lungs as well as improves heart attack patient's chances of survival?
Toxic substances released out of cell by bacteria?
Bacterial toxins made up of lipids located inside cell?
What type of toxins are Cholerae, Botulism, Diptheriae, and Tetanus?
What type of toxin is S. aurerus leukocidin?
What type of toxin is the Plague?
Yersinia murine toxin (Ymt)
Types of natural barriers?
Skin, mucous membranes, tears, earwax, mucus, stomach acid, urine
Which kind of WBC engulfs bacteria and destroys them with special chemicals?
Which two WBCs swallow foreign particles in the body?
Eosinophils and Monocytes
Which kind of WBC helps to intensify swelling through inflammation?
Which kind of WBC circulates in the blood until sensing an infection and are the first cells to migrate to infection site to kill invading microbes?
What kind of WBC are involved in inflammatory processes, especially in allergic disoders and may have a role in organ formation?
What kind of WBC possess a large, smooth nucleus, large area of cytoplasm and vesicles for processing foreign material? (Also has macrophage and dendritic-cell progeny serving three main functions: phagocytosis, antigen presentation & cytokine production)
What kind of WBC appears in many inflammatory reactions, particularly those causing allergic symptoms?
(Also has anticoagulant heparin, which stops blood from clotting too quickly & the vasodilator histamine, which helps blood flow to tissues)
Which cell is a type of lymphocyte (WBC) that protects us from viral infections, helps to fight bacterial & fungal infections, produces antibodies, fights cancer, & supports other cells in the immune system?
What role do T4-helper cells play in AIDS?
Without helper T cells AIDS patients can't defend themselves even against normally harmless microbes.
7 steps of phagocytosis?
1. Chemotaxis & adherance of mirobes to phagocyte
2. Ingestion of microbe to phagocyte
3. Phagosome formation
4. Phagosome fusion to lysosome to form a phagolysosome
5. Enzyme digestion of microbe
6. Formation of residual body containing indigestible materials
7. Discharge of waste
What is a protein that attaches to specific antigens?
What is a substance that stimulates an immune response?
What type of cell kills bacteria and inactive viruses by surrounding and digesting them with enzymes?
Complex cells used to direct the body's immune system? (B & C type)
________ antibodies are large molecules made of 4 peptide chains, containing 2 identical class γ heavy chains and 2 identical light chains.
Which type of antibody is the most common one found in circulation, protects the body from infection, is created and released by plasma B cells, has 2 antigen binding sites, and represents 75% of human serum antibodies?
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
Which antibody provides long-term protection by retaining memory of the pathogen that triggered its production, can leave the blood cells and move to areas of inflammation, is a monomer protecting against bacteria, viruses, neutralizing bacterial toxins by helping during phagocytosis?
Which antibody is 0-15% of antibodies, consists of 2 monomers joined together, is the most common form of antibodies in mucous membranes/body secretions, main function is to bind antigens on microbes before they invade tissues and aggregates the antigens by keeping them in the secretions so when secretion is expelled along with antigen?
Which antibody is 0.2% of serum antibodies, monomer found in the blood, lymph nodes, and especially on the surface of B cells?
Which antibody is 0.0002% of antibodies, binds T mast cells and basophils when an antigen like pollen binds to it, the mast cell or basophil releases histamine, involved in allergic reactions, & attracts complement and phagocytic cells?
What is a disease where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells?
Which type of hypersensitivity is also called immediate/anaphylactic hypersensitivity? (Skin, eyes, nasopharynx and gastrointestinal tract are involved which causes symptoms ranging from minor inconvenience to death, the reaction usually takes 15-30 mins from time of exposure to antigen, although sometimes it may have delayed onset (10-12 hrs).
Type 1 hypersensitivity
Why type of hypersensitivity is also called cell mediated or delayed hypersensitivity? (Examples:
1. Tuberculin (Montoux) reaction = peaks 48 hours after antigen injection (PPD or old TC)
2. Contact dermatitis = poison ivy, chemicals, or heavy metals where lesions are more papular.
Type IV hypersensitivity
If a pregnant woman has a rash and a fever and Ab tests reveal a high level of IgG against the Rubella virus but a low titer of IgM, should the doctor be concerned about Rubella?
No, Dr's not concerned about the Rubella virus bc a high level of IgG s shows the patient has an immunity to it.
If the patient had a high titer of IgM, then she might have it, but since titer is low, she doesn't have Rubella virus
Which antibody is a pentamer at 10-15%, does not leave blood vessels, involved in ABO blood group antigens on the surface of RBC's, effective in aggregating antigens because of 10 binding sites, enhances ingestions of cells by phagocytosis, and is involved with complement cells?
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