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Politics of the United States
AP government: Amendments and SC Cases final review
Terms in this set (59)
1.) Bill of Rights (1791)
2.) Early Amendments (1795-1804)
3.) The Civil War Amendments (1865-1920)
4.) Later Amendments ( 1933-1992)
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition (5)
The right to keep, bear arms
Troops can't enter private homes
Proper warrants for search and seizure
Their right to life, liberty, and property will not be offended without due process. You do not have to incriminate yourself. (Plea the 5th)
The right to a public and speedy trial and an attorney
Rights in civil cases- a dispute over 20 dollars or more will be tried by juries
No excessive bails, fines, or punishment
The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people ( Just because the amendment is not listed does not mean it is not you right)
powers not delegated to the gov are for the states
Amendment 13 (1865)
Abolishment of slavery
Amendment 14 (1868)
All persons born in the US have rights, due process
Black suffrage: people of color will not be denied the right to vote
Government could impose income tax
prohibited the sale, manufacturing of alcohol
Women's right to vote
repeal on the prohibition of alcohol
limit of two terms on presidency
D.C would receive the number of electors for elections as if it were a state
Anyone could vote regardless of if they paid poll taxes or any taxes
If the president cant fulfill his duties the vice president takes over
Right to vote at the age of 18
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
William Marbury petitioned against James Madison for not delivering his pay. John Marshall denied the petition because the supreme court did not nave the power to issue a writ but since then the rule have changed.
MCculloch vs. Maryland (1819)
The united states opened a second charter bank. Maryland taxed the bank and Mcculloch refused to pay the tax. The unanimous decision was that the congress had the power to open the bank and maryland could not tax. This case clarified that the constitution is supreme over states.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
appealed to the court because Pennsylvania and Rhode Island where funding non public schools which violates separation of church and states. They were in favor of kurtzman
Oregon v. Smith (1990)
Smith was fired for using drugs for religious purposes and was denied unemployment compensation. It was undecided and left to the Oregon supreme court.
Schenck v. US (1919)
Schenck sent out a letter opposing the draft and was charged. The Supreme court determined he was not protected by freedom of speech. (limit on the first amendment)
NY Times v. Sullivan (1964)
J.B Sullivan pressed charges against the New York Times for libel. The ad said that Montgomery was arresting him to put down his efforts. The court in Alabama gave Sullivan $500,000 because their law said he didn't have to prove he was harmed. The Supreme court then unanimously voted in favor of the NY Times.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
In a public high school kids wore black arm bands to protest a war and were suspended. A district court sided with the school saying it disrupted learning. But the supreme court said it was within their rights.
NY times v. US (1971)
The Nixon Administration tried to prevent the Times from publishing info about the wars. Supreme court sided with the New York times.
Hazelwood School v. Kuhlmeier (1988)
A principal in the school deleted articles from the student newspaper because he found them inappropriate. The students brought it to court and lost because a school can hold standards for what they want published.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Johnson burned an american flag to protest reagan and was taken to jail. The supreme court decided he was protected under the first amendment.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Gitlow was arrested for distributed socialist book provoking violence. He is protected under the 14th amendment but the state can act if it can effect public safety. Court sided with New York
Weeks v. US (1914)
Police entered Weeks home without a warrant and took his property. The court decided that was a direct violation of the 4th amendment. "Exclusionary rule"
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Mapp was convicted of possessing obscene materials after an illegal police search of her home for a fugitive. She appealed her conviction on the basis of freedom of expression. The court agreed the evidence found illegally couldn't incriminate her.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Gideon represented himself in court and was sentenced. He petitioned and won because even in non capitol cases you have the right to an attorney. (6th amendment)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Miranda was put in jail with an illegal confession and petitioned that he was not read his rights. In 1966 they reviewed his case and said his confession could not be used as evidence. He also could chose to not incriminate himself under the 5th amendment. (Miranda Rights)
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Scott was a resident in free land so he sued for rights but lost because in Article 3 and 4 slaves are considered property. They called the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because no african american could be a citizen.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
In Illinois Plessy sat in a whites only section and was arrested. The supreme court stated that this didn't offend the 14th amendment because blacks and whites had equal rights, they were just segregated. The rule said nothing about not differentiating.("Seperate but equal")
Brown v. Board of Education or Topeka (1954)
This case argued the segregation of race in public schools. According to the Plessy v. Ferguson this was legal but when the white schools offered better facilities it violates the equal protection law of the 14th amendment. The supreme court sided with brown saying white schools need to accept brown children.
Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
In both cases University of Michigan was accused of racial discrimination in their admission process. Grutters case was inconclusive while Gratz won.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Griswold was convicted for giving couples advice on preventing pregnancy. The 1,3, and 9th amendment together create maridal privacy.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Roe wanted to terminate her pregnancy which was prohibited in Texas. The court saw that the constitution gave women the right to abort under the right to privacy. This changed the laws in 46 states.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
A cop in Texas entered Lawrences home and found him engaging in sexual acts with a man. They were arrested but the supreme court ruled that under the due process clause in the 14th amendment they had equal rights.
Korematsu v. US (1944)
The government had people of Japanese descent The court decided that his rights were outweighed by the countries safety.
United States v. Nixon (1974)
Nixon tried to withhold information but after the supreme court unanimously decided he didn't have that right he resigned.
Equal Pay act of 1963
Women and men must be paid equally for the same job unless wages are bassed on merit or seniority etc.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964
This act gave permission for the expansion of the Vietnam war
Civil Rights Act of 1964
proposed by president john f. kennedy this act prohibited racial segragation.
Voting rights act of 1965
Lyndon Johnson gave blacks the right to vote v
Clean Air Act of 1970
The clean air act made regulations for privately owned businesses
Federal Election Campaign Acts 1971-1974
The act was originally to keep contributions more private but was amended to regulate the contributions.
Title IX, Education/Higher Education Act -1974
Prohibited schools from discriminating based on sex by withholding funding
War powers act 1973
Limits the presidents power to send troops abroad without congress approval
Freedom of Information Act 1974
Any person has the right to request access to federal records unless it is one of the 9 exemptions
Americans with Disabilities of 1990
This was the first act prohibiting discrimination in employment, service, and public accommodations for the disabled.
Welfare reform Act-1996
The social welfare system reformed so that people needed to find work and not rely on the government.
Patriot Act of 2001
This act was put in place as a result of the terrorist attacks like 9/11.
Recommended textbook explanations
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Principles in Practice (Florida)
Luis Ricardo Fraga
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