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Like the family, school, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a(n)
A) informed method of social control
B) private response to crime
C) institution of social control
D) subtle social control
American criminal justice consists of three main agencies. Which of the following is NOT one of those three main agencies?
After an arrest has been made, the suspect is brought to the police station to be
The purpose of ___ is for a judge to determine whether there is probably cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime or crimes with which he or she is charged
A) an indictment
B) an initial appearance
C) an arraignment
D) a preliminary hearing
About ___ of criminal defendats plead guilty to the charges against them in an arrangement called plea bargaining
Currently, five general types of punishment are in use in the United States. Which of the following is NOT one of these punishments?
D) intermediate punishments
Because there is considerable conflict and confusion between different agencies of criminal justice, an accurate way of defining American criminal justice may be to call it
A) a non-system
B) a system
C) extremely uniform
D) smoothly operating
When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of the ___ seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice
A) human rights
C) crime control model
D) claim of right doctrine
A major problem with the crime control model is that a presumption of guilt goes against one of the oldest and most cherished principles of American criminal justice. What is this principle?
A) defendants have the right to counsel, even if they are indigent
B) defendants are considered innocent until proven guilty
C) defendants are protected against compelled self-incrimination
D) defendants have the right to a jury of their peers
Due process advocates recognize that there can be no equal justice where the kind of trial a person gets, whether he or she gets a trial at all, depends substantially on
A) the demands of the court's caseload
B) the region of the country in which the person lives
C) the personal beliefs of his or her counsel
D) how much money the person has
Which of the following is a problem associated with finding an appropriate definition of crime?
A) crime should be defined only be the presence of a physical injury to a person
B) most behaviors defined as criminal are actually victimless crimes
C) many dangerous and harmful behaviors are not defined as crimes, while many less dangerous and harmful behaviors are.
D) too many behaviors exist that could be defined as crimes.
The term ___ refers to criminal conduct - specifically, intentional or criminally negligent action or inaction that causes harm
B) mena rea
C) ex post facto
D) actus reus
Which of the following terms is defined as a legal defense against criminal responsibility when a person, who was not already predisposed to it, is induced into committing a crime by a law enforcement officer or by his or her agent?
The term ___ is defined as offenses that are illegal because laws define them as such
A) mala prohibita
B) mala fide
C) modus operandi
D) mens rea
Which of the following is a reason why victims fail to report crimes?
A) they are intimidated by (or afraid of) the offender
B) they may hope to avoid embarrassing the offender
C) they may consider the crime insignificant and not worth reporting
D) all of the answers are correct
Any record of crimes - such as "offenses known to the police," arrests, convictions, or commitments to prison - can be considered at most ___, or an estimate of crimes committed
A) the true amount of crime
B) a crime rate
C) the dark figure of crime
D) a crime index
Which of the following crimes is NOT a uniform crime reports Part I offense?
A) aggravated assault
C) motor vehicle theft
Which of the following terms is defined as an act that is illegal for a juvenile but would not be a crime if committed by an adult?
A) a hate crime
B) a bias crime
C) an index offense
D) a status offense
To date, most self-report crime surveys conducted in the United States have been administered to ___
A) victims of violent crimes
C) school children
D) victims of hate crimes
For many crime victims, ___ is th most burdensome and last one consequence of their victimization.
C) medical expense
Which of the following theories assumes that crime is committed by free-willed individuals who are motivated by a hedonistic rationality?
A) anomie theory
B) Chicago school theory
C) classical theory
D) humanistic psychological theory
Who argued that criminals are, by birth, a distinct type, and that this type can be recognized by physical charicteristics or stigmata such as enormous jaws, high cheekbones, insensitivity to pain, etc.?
A) Cesare Beccaria
B) William shatter
C) cesare lombroso
D) johann Casper lavater
With whom are psychoanalytic theories of crime causation associated?
A) William Sheldon
B) h. H. Goddard
C) Sigmund Freud
D) cesare lombroso
For émile Durkheim, the cause of crime is ___, that is, the disassociation of the individual from the ___.
A) anomie; collective conscience
B) sociopathy; sui generis
C) sui generis; anomie
D) sui generis; collective conscience
For Chicago theorists, social disorganization is defined by several charicteristics. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of social organization?
A) there is an absence of gangs and gang-related delinquency
B) there is little encouragement, training, or opportunity for legitimate employment
C) there are many opportunities for delinquent behaviour
D) the usual controls over delinquents are largely absent
According to Albert K. Cohen, what is the cause of anomie experienced by juveniles?
A) their dissociation from the collective conscience
B) the social structureMs inability to provide legitimate institutional means of achieving the goal of wealth
C) the usual controls over them being largely absent
D) the inability to achieve status among peers by socially acceptable means
Edwin H. Sutherland's theory that a person who becomes a criminal does so because of his or her contact with criminals definitions and isolation from anti-criminal definitions is known as
A) social disorganization
B) collective conscience
C) differential social organization
D) differential association
From the perspective of ___, people are specter to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so
A) learning theory
B) social control theory
C) differential association theory
D) role theory
For which of the following theories is reintegration shaming a policy implication?
A) labeling theory
B) British or left realism
C) radical theory
D) peacemaking criminolofy
Men's control over women's labor and sexuality is known as
___ is a formal means of social control that involves the use of rules that are interpreted, and are enforceable, by th courts of a political community. The function of th rules is to set limits to conduct of the citizens, to guide the officials (police and other administrators), and to define conditions of deviance or unacceptable behaviour.
A) civil law
B) criminal law
C) procedural law
D) substantive law
Which of the following penal sanctions is used primarily to prevent undesired conduct and to provide retribution?
The criminal law of the United States, for the most part, is derived from the laws of
B) colonial America
In common law, the decision in a particular case becomes a potential basis, or ___, for deciding the outcomes of similar cases in the future
A) penal code
B) stare decisis
Identify a true statement about the Bill of Rights
A) it originally had a set of six ammendments by the First Congress of the states for ratification
B) it states that the right to no excessive bail and fines is applicable in all states
C) it exclusively covers the first amendment to the U.S Constitution
D) it originally applied to only the U.S. national government
Which of the following refers to explorations or inspections by law enforcement officers of homes, premises, vehicles, or persons for the purpose of discovering evidence of crimes or persons who are accused of crimes?
Which of the following standards of proof is more than a gut feeling and legally permits a law enforcement officer to stop and frisk a suspect?
A) conclusive presumption
B) rebuttable presumption
C) reasonable suspicion
D) mere suspicion
The standard of proof. Ecessarg to find a defendant guilty in a criminal trial is
A) beyond a reasonable doubt
B) preponderance of evidence
C) probably cause
D) reasonable suspicion
The exclusionary rule originally had three primary purposes. Which of the following is NOT one of those purposes?
A) to protect individual rights from police misconduct
B) to deter the police from violating peoples' Fifth amendment rights
C) to prevent police misconduct
D) to maintain judicial integrity
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court broaden the protections against compelled self-incrimination to cover nearly all custodial police interrogations?
A) Arizona c. Fulminante
B) brown v. Mississippi
C) Miranda v. Arizona
D) Escobedo v. Illinois
The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in
C) New England
Which was the first American city to create a paid and unified municipal police force?
D) new york
Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police officers?
A) they were "free men of color"
B) they were hired around 1805 to serve as members of the New Orleans City watch system
C) they were hired primarily because other people did not want the job
D) they were slaves
At various times in American history, local police have acted in several roles. Which of the following is NOT one of those roles?
A) social worker
D) public servant
Who were the first federal law enforcement agents in the United States?
A) the secret service agents
B) the FBI agents
C) the US Marshals
D) the DEA agents
Why was the US Secret service creates?
A) to combat counterfeiting
B) to protect national leaders
C) to provide witness security
D) to conduct fugitive investigstions
When the FBI was created, it was limited to investigating only a few types of crimes. Which of the following was NOT one that the FBI investigated?
A) national banking crimes
B) drug crimes
C) naturalization crimes
D) peonage crimes
Which of the following US presidents created the DEA?
A) Theodore Roosevelt
B) bill Clinton
C) John f. Kennedy
D) Richard Nixon
Approximately how many municipal police departments operated in the United States in 2013?
A) more than 125,000
B) more than 12,000
State-level law enforcement officers include three of the following groups. Which of the following does NOT belong?
B) Park rangers
C) marine/water patrols
D) Highway patrols
Your textbook describes four charicteristics that generally define the role of the police. Which of the following is NOT among those characteristics?
A) the police solve sociological and technological problems for people on a short-term basis
B) the police are community leaders in public safety
C) the police occasionally serve in a hostile or dangerous environment
D) the police perform ongoing educational roles in the community
Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?
C) traffic enforcer
D) drug enforcement
Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ___ patrol
When an entire patrol station is instructed to make numerous traffic stops and field interrogations, the practice is referred to as ___ patrol
With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ___ found at th scene of a crime or on a victim
A) all of the answers are corrrct
Each year, nearly twice as many people are ___ than are ___
A) murdered; killed in automobile accidents
B) killed in automobile accidents; murdered
C) kidnapped; killed in automobile accidencta
D) murdered; kidnapped
One of the more important functions of traffic units is to
A) enforce traffic laws, particularly when violations of those laws cause traffic accidents.
B) recommend traffic engineering changes that will enhance the flow of traffic and promote safety
C) all of the answers are correct
D) educate motorists in a community about traffic safety and proper driving procedures.
Identify a true statement about community policing
A) implementation plans for community policing remain the same among all agencies.
B) the police view the community as a passive presence connected to them by an isolated incident or series of incidents
C) citizens are entrusted with conducting arrests on behalf of the police
D) critical decisions are required to be made at the neighborhood level
Following are three parts of the acronym "SARA", which some community policing advocates recommend as a four-step problem-solving process. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of SARA?
A) arrival -determining the situations timeliness
B) assessment - determining the solutions' effect
C) scanning - identifying problems
D) response - developing and implementing solutions
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the War on Drugs?
A) the abuse or misuse of illegal drugs has contributed to more deaths annually than either alcohol or tobacco
B) the drug war is easiest
C) the drug war is hugely expensive
D) the government has exaggerated the dangers of illegal drug use
According to your text, three highly important qualities for police officers to have are
A) the three I's or police selection, appearance, and compassion
B) the three I's of police selection, common sense, and compassion
C) strength, endurance, and compassion
D) strength, common sense, and the three I's of police selection
Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one of th negative consequences listed in your textbook?
A) expensive lawsuits
B) sensational publicity
C) consent decrees
D) court-ordered quotas to achieve the desired diversity
The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of
A) lowered crime rates
B) positive publicity about lowered discretion
C) abuses of that discretion
D) increase police-community relations
The practice of relying on the judgement of the police leadership and rank-and-file- officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as
A) selective enforcement
B) limited discretion
C) high discretion
D) full enforcement
For a long time, police looked at domestic violence calls as ___ when, in fact, they should have been treated as ___
A) criminal matters; routine service calls
B) assault offenses; sexual offense
C) misdemeanors; felonies
D) peacekeeping activities; criminal matters
Racial profiling often occurs during ___, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored
A) pretext stops
B) random patrols
C) selective enforcement
D) full enforcement
In the context of types of corruption in police departments, which of the following misconducts is performed by grass eaters?
A) soliciting bribes
B) accepting gifts for ignoring violations of the law
C) committing burglaries
D) manufacturing false evidence for a prosecution
Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?
A) deadly force
C) job stress
D) excessive force
Which of the following US Supreme Court decisions severely restricted the police use of deadly force?
A) Woodson v. North Carolina
B) Tennessee v. Garner
C) furman v. Georgia
D) Esobedo v. Illinois
___ are offenders who actively seek ways to make more money illegally while on duty
A) meat eaters
B) grass eaters
A court of ___ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
Trial courts of ___ jurisdiction are referred to generally as inferior "trial courts" or simply as "lower courts"
Which of the following was the first type of "problem-solving" court?
A) drug court
B) child-support court
C) mental health court
D) domestic violence court
The ___ is a community's chief law enforcement official and is responsible primarily for the protection of society
A) public defender
The role of defense lawyers is to
A) mislead the court by providing false information
B) decide their clients' guilt or innocence
C) mislead the court by using perjured testimony (false testimony under oath)
D) provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession
Which of the following is a judicial selection process in which the governor appoints judges from a list of qualified lawyers compiled by a nonpartisan nominating commission composed of both lawyers and other citizens?
A) partisan election
B) merit selection
C) legislative election
D) gubernatorial appointment
After suspects officially become defendants, they are brought before a lower-court judge for
A) an initial appearance
B) an arraignment
C) plea bargaining
D) a preliminary hearing
Your textbook identifies three basic types of plea bargaining. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
A) a defendant may plead guilty to one charge in return for the prosecutor's promise to drop other charges that could be brought
B) a defendant may be allowed to plead guilty to a lesser offense
C) before sentencing, a defendant may plead guilty for the mercy of the court
D) at the request of the prosecutor, a defendant who pleaded guilty may receive a lighter sentence than would typically be given for the crime.
What standard of proof is necessary to find a defendant guilty as charged?
A) preponderance of the evidence
B) beyond a reasonable doubt
C) clear and convincing evidence
D) probably cause
What is the result if, after serious deliberation, even one juror cannot agree with the others on a verdict?
A) a hung jury
C) dismissal of the juror that cannot agree
The term ___ is defined as the attempt to correct the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law abiding citizens
In the context of sentencing, judges are limited by the US Constitution's ___ prohibition of cruel and unusual punishments and statutory provisions
A) 8th amendement
B) 6th amendment
C) 5th Amendment
D) 10th amedment
A(n) ___ sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration rather than a set period
In ___, the legislature determines a sentence range for each crime, which is usually based on the seriousness of the crime and the criminal history of the offender
A) presumptive sentencing
B) indeterminate sentencing
C) determinate sentencing
D) flat-time sentencing
From biblical times through the 18th century, ___ was the cominant justification for punishment
Which of the following is an effort to do something for victims and their survivors - to return them, as much as possible, to their precious state and to make them "whole" again?
According to your textbook, one problem with restitution is that most offenders:
A) consider restitution to be unfair and refuse to provide it
B) arrange for others to assume the burden of restitution for them
C) have neither the financial means nor the abilities to provide adequate restitution
D) provide restitution, but usually the wrong kind
Your textbook gives four examples of the claims that a convicted offender can make at allocution. Which of the following is NOT one of these claims?
A) that he or she is not the right person who was found guilty at trial
B) that his or her civil rights are being violated by the sentence
C) that she is pregnant
D) that he or she has gone insane since the verdict was rendered
Reductions in sentences for death row inmates, which are granted by a state's governor, are called ___
B) proportionality reviews
C) appellate reviews
D) habeas corpus petitions
As of May 12th, 2016, how many jurisdictions in the United States have capital punishment statutes?
Which of the following institutions is commonly regarded as the first state prison of the United States?
A) auburn penitentiary in New York
B) eastern state penitentiary in Philadelphia
C) Charlestown state prison in Massachusetts
D) walnut street jail in Philadelphia
Which of the following was designed for younger, less hardened offenders between 16 and 30 years of age?
A) the penitentiary
B) the reformatory
Most early women's prisons employed ___, which was different from the ___ of men's prisons
A) solitary confinement; cottages
B) life sentences; early release programs
C) a family-style living plan; solitary confinement
D) a family-style living plan; cell-block plan
In the context of the reformatory movement, identify a true statement about the reformatory
A) it was based on a military model of regimentation and emphasized academic and vocational training in addition to work
B) it was designed for older, more hardened offenders between 31 and 45 years of age
C) it employed determinate sentences to facilitate greater control over inmates
D) it denied inmates any opportunity for parole or an early release even when they showed favorable progress in reformation
Over the last 200 years, Americans have developed a tradition of strong reliance on the prison to control crime. The result is that
A) it has generally exceeded peoples' expectations
B) it makes the public less concerned about crime
C) it has generally met peoples' expectations
D) it has never done very well
Which of the following is NOT a function of jails?
A) holding individuals for protective custody
B) holding individual for contempt
C) holding inmates sentenced to long terms
D) temporarily detaining juveniles pending transfer to juvenile authorities
Which of the following has research shown to be an advantage of popular or direct-supervision jails?
A) all of the answers are correct
B) they provide a less stressful, more positive, and safer environment for th inmates and staff
C) they reduce inmate violations for contraband possession, destruction of property, escapes, disrespecting officers and staff, suicides, and violence
D) they enhance supervision by reducing the number of unsupervised areas
A ___ is a very short term (for instance, 24-48 hour) holding facility that is frequently located in or very near an urban police agency so that suspects can be held pending further inquiry into their cases by the police or the court
B) minimum-security prison
C) classification facility
Most institutions have elaborate ___, in which staff learn from inmate informants about the presence of contraband, the potential for disruptions, and other threats to security.
A) security procedures
B) staff procedures
C) conjugal visit
D) smith systems
Which of the following principles states that prisoners should receive no service or program superior to the services and programs available to free citizens without charge?
A) the prison-is-for-punishment principle
B) the no pay, no play principle
C) the less-eligibility principle
D) the convict-program principle
Which of the following terms is defined as the process by which an inmate becomes socialized into customs and principles of the inmate society?
The ___ is a theory that states that the inmate society arises as a response to the prison environment and the painful conditions of confinement
A) importation model
B) tribunal model
C) crime control model
D) deprivation model
Which of the following terms is defined as a constellation of values, norms, and roles that regulate the way inmates interact with one another and with prison staff?
A) convict code
B) deprivation model
C) importation model
D) civil code
A ___ is an institutional setting in which people are cut off from the wider society and are expected to live according to institutional rules and procedures
A) total institution
B) maximum-security prison
D) furlough arrangement
The ___ model holds that the inmate society is shaped by factors external to the prison environment- specifically, the pre-prison experiences and socialization patterns that inmates bring with them when they enter prison
C) indigenous origins
Instances of prison sex can be divided into three basic categories. Which of the following is NOT one of those categories?
B) consensual sex for gratification
C) sexual assault
Which of the following is a distinguishing feature of the inmate society in many women's prisons?
A) the presence of pseudofamilies
B) the presence of interracial tension
C) the presence of interpersonal conflict
D) all of the answers are correct
Inmates skilled in legal matters are known as
C) jailhouse lawyer
Which of the following terms is defined as the return to illegal activity after release from incarceration?
The term ___ is defined as the reduction of the original sentence given by executive authority, usually as a state's governor
C) mandatory release
As a sub field of corrections, community corrections has traditionally emphasized ___
___ refers to organized and systematic efforts to remove people from the criminal justice process by placing them in programs that offer alternatives to the next, more restrictive stage of processing
D) shock incarceration
Which of the following is conducted by a probation agency at the request of a judge, usually during the period between the finding (or plea) of guilt and sentencing?
A) termination of probation
B) the probation subsidy
C) shock incarceration
D) the presentence investigation (PSI)
Identify a true statement about straight probation
A) in straight probation, the judge pronounces a jail or prison sentence but suspends the sentence on the condition that the offender performs well on probation
B) straight probation occurs when an offender is sentenced only to probation, with no incarceration or other form of residential placement
C) straight probation involves placement of a probationer in a structured but generally open living environment, such as a halfway house.
D) with straight probation, the judge divided a single sentence into a relatively short jail term followed by probation supervision.
Which of the following is used with people leaving prison?
A key to successful community adjustment for inmates leaving prison is ___, which means rebuilding former prosocial ties to the community and establishing new ties
Which of the following offers a community based residential facility that is an alternative to confinement in jail or prison?
A) electronics monitoring
B) home confinement
C) shock incarceration
D) community correctional centers
A major limitation of work-release programs is that most inmates must settle for low-skilled and low-paying jobs. This limitation exists for three reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
A) many employers are reluctant to hire work-release inmates
B) a large proportion of inmates lack the educational and vocational backgrounds needed to secure higher-paying employment
C) inmates on work-release tend to neglect paying restitution or dependent support
D) there is more competition for higher-paying jobs
Which of the following factors accounts for the wide variations among states in parolee success rates?
A) variations in parole populations
B) the level of supervision
C) parole agency policies on the revocation of technical violators
D) all of the answers are correct
Who among the following is considered the "father" of probation?
A) Zebulon Brockwag
B) John Augustus
C) Alexander Machonochie
D) Walter Crofton
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