45 terms

Nutrition throughout Lifespan

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3 factors affect a person's ultimate size (height and weight?
Genetic, environmental and lifestyle
At what to points is an individual's growth most rapid?
During the first year of life and in adolescence
What are BMI-for-age charts used for?
To identify children who are underweight, overweight or obese
How are children classified as overweight?
If their BMI is greater than or equal to the 85th percentile and less that the 95th percentile
How are children classified as obese?
If their BMI is greater than or equal to the 95th percentile
How do the diets of children today compare to those of 25+ years ago?
Most children's diets need improvement and after the age of 6, less than 10% of children 7 to 18 years old have a "good" diet
What has happened to obesity over the past years?
Obesity among children and adolescents had tripled, but the amount of overweight/obese people seems to be leveling off
What are some of the disease conditions related to poor diet amongst children?
obesity, Type II diabetes, elevated serum cholesterol, heart disease and hypertension
What is a characteristic of obese adults that was found during Dr. Beck's research study?
Markers of inflammation in their serum
What was found as a result of the study?
Children as young as 2 who are obese already demonstrate endocrinological impact of excess weight
What is the diet of an infant at birth to 4 months?
Breast milk and iron-fortified formula
What is the diet of an infant at 4-6 months?
Breast milk/formula, infant cereal, peered veggies, soft fruit
What is the diet of an infant at 6-9 months?
Breast milk/formula, infant cereal, peered veggies, soft fruit, meat, beans, juices
What is the diet of an infant at 9-12 months?
Breast milk/formula, infant cereal, chopped veggies, soft fruit, meat, beans, juice, non-choking finger foods
Do women or men tend to have higher energy needs?
Men
What is the MyPlate recommendation for children?
1/2 fruits and veggies (more veggies than fruit), 1/2 grains and protein (more grains than protein) and 1 serving of dairy
Do women or men tend to have more fat mass?
Women
What are some of the dietary choices that can lead to nutrient deficiencies in adolescents?
1) Vegetarianism/veganism
2)Eating for appearance
3) Smoking
4) Alcohol use
5) Oral contraceptive use
6) Teen pregnancy
Aging is a complex _________.
phenotype
What 3 of the mechanisms of aging?
1) Injury to DNA (telomeres) due to free radicals
2) Inefficient repair or poor defense mechanisms leading to cellular damage
3) Genetically regulated programmed process with hormonal mechanisms
What are 5 things associated with increased longevity?
1) Increased antioxidant systems
2) Reduced insulin secretion
3) Increase insulin sensitivity
4) Delayed reproduction
5) Reduced fertility
What is a telomere?
a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome
What are telomeres thought to protect the chromosome from?
deterioration
What does telomerase do?
It keeps telomeres long so that DNA can be copied many times without losing its protective tip
What happens to telomerase as we age?
The production decreases and thus telomeres shorten and cells go into senescence
What does it mean to be on a calorie-restricted diet?
Eating fewer calories than your body needs to maintain a normal weight while stills getting enough vitamins and minerals (generally 20-30% fewer calories than usual
What was determined concerning diet and aging from the Rhesus monkey study?
Restricted diet had no special impact on fighting aging, however the DIET QUALITY does
What is resveratrol?
A naturally occuring polyphenolic compound found in red wine and black grapes that has many anti-aging properties
What are some of the anti-agin properties of resveratrol?
Anti-inflammatory, antitumor and cardioprotective
What is the main target for resveratrol?
The SIRT1 protein
What is the SIRT1 protein?
A protein that is an NAD+ dependent deacetylase and acts as a situin activator
What processes is SIRT involved in?
apoptosis, cell survival, transcription, metabolism and aging
What is autophagy?
a cytoprotective self-digestive process that can help improve longevity and extend lifespan
How does autophagy help improve longevity?
Cells that breakdown dated/damaged organelles can proteins to replace can use autophagy under starvation conditions to provide energy and substrates for cell processes
What parts of lifestyle can affect an individual's rate of aging?
Nutrition, exercise and stress
What parts of genetics can affect an individual's rate of aging?
Susceptibility to environmental stress and ability to repair cellular damage
What parts of environment can affect an individual's rate of aging?
Disease, accidents and toxins
What 4 nutrients need to be increased in the diet of older adults?
Vitamin D, vitamin B6, calcium and magnesium
What are the 4 factors that increase the risk of malnutrition among the elderly?
1) Reduced food intake
2) Reduced nutrient absorption and utilization
3) Increased nutrient requirements
4) Increased nutrient losses
What are some of the consequences of malnutrition?
Decreased immune function (increased illness), decreased muscle mass (decreased accessibility of food) and Increased use of medications
What are some of the physiological changes that occur with aging?
Sensory decline, cataracts, decrease in lean body tissue, reduced hormone levels, decreased mobility, dementia, Alzheimer's disease
What are some of the negative health effects of prescription and over-the-counter drugs?
Iron deficiency, bleeding in GI tract, vomiting, elimination of vitamin D
What are some social and economic changes that can accompany aging?
Income level, dependent living and depression
What is the acronym of the checklist of the warning signs of malnutrition?
DETERMINE
What does DETERMINE stand for?
D- Disease
E- Eating poorly
T- Tooth loss/mouth pain
E- Economic hardship
R- Reduced social support
M- Multiple medicines
I- Involuntary weight loss/gain
N- Needs assistance in self-carer
E- Elder above age 80