MUSC 10 Jazz Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (89)
A low-pitched stringed instrument and one of the members of the rhythm section in a jazz band.
A stringed, strummed instrument that often provided the chords in New Orleans and Chicago-style (Dixieland) jazz.
a single reed woodwind instrument
A medium-range brass instrument much like a trumpet but with a larger bore and hence a mellower sound (conical bore instead of cylindrical).
the backbone of the jazz rhythm section. Usually consists of a snare drum, bass drum, several tom-toms, and various cymbals.
The lead (melody) instruments in early jazz bands. The front line usually consisted of trumpet (or cornet), trombone, and clarinet. Saxophone was added later.
A string instrument played as either a lead instrument (through picking) or a rhythm instrument (through chord strumming). It can be acoustic or amplified.
The principal Western keyboard instrument. In jazz it functions as a solo instrument and as part of the rhythm section.
A part of a jazz band that provides the rhythmic pulse, harmonies, and bass line. It may include any of the following: piano, bass, drums, guitar, and sometimes banjo.
A single-reed instrument made of brass that is common in all jazz styles except New Orleans (Dixieland). The saxophone comes in many shapes and sizes. Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Baritone (Bari) are the most common.
A lower brass instrument that changes pitch by means of a slide.
A brass musical instrument with a flared bell and a bright, penetrating tone.
A nervous, energetic style of jazz that developed in the 1940s. Also called Bop. included faster, up tempo; switch from big band to small groups; music heard more in clubs rather than dance halls and concert halls; switch of jazz artists from commercial success to real artists
In part a reaction to bebop that involved more complex composition, slower tempos, and sometimes less overt emotional involvement; more composed, included more space and relaxation, no longer about technical virtuosity
The jazz style that originated on new Orleans and flourished in the late 1910s and 1920s. The Dixieland jazz band typically consisted of a front line (of trumpet or cornet, clarinet, and trombone) accompanied by a rhythm section (of piano, guitar or banjo, and drums).
A jazz movement of the 1950s that drew on the speed, intensity, and power of bebop and sometimes-married bop to gospel and blues-influenced music.
An African American musical genre that flourished in the late 1890s through the mid-1910s and is based on constant syncopation in the right hand often accompanied by a steady march beat in the left hand.
A school of jazz piano playing based on a moving left-hand accompaniment alternating bass notes and chords with an appropriate right-hand figuration pulling or tugging at the left hand.
Generic term for the jazz and much popular music of the midthirties and midforties.
A large jazz ensemble typically including four to five trumpets, three to four trombones, four to five reeds (saxophones or doubling), and rhythm (typically piano, bass, drums, and guitar).
Jazz bands that featured fast tempos and dramatic solos and group performances, usually with more improvisation than sweet bands had.
Bands that played relatively less syncopated, slower pieces, such as ballads and popular songs.
A bent, slurred, or "worried" note. Most often occurs on the third of the scale, but any note can be made "blue" by varying its intonation in a blues or jazz performance.
call and response
A musical procedure in which a single voice states a melodic phrase -the call- and a group of voices or instruments follows with a responding or completing phrase - the response.
A rhythmic pattern arising from regular groupings of two or three beats. These define, respectively, duple or triple meter. Most music has meter.
A group of notes sounded together, as a basis of harmony.
the closing strain of a phrase, section, or movement. Also refers to a common closing chord progression.
Many popular songs in the early 20th century included a verse as an introduction to the chorus.
Each time the performers execute of work through the form of a song, it is called the chorus. For example, once through a 12-bar blues or once through a 32-bar song.
song structure or the musical forms of songs in traditional music are typically sectional.
A musical form that comprises an eight-bar theme (A) played twice. A contrasting melody (B) follows, also usually eight bars long, before the A theme returns. Quite often the second and third A sections will vary slightly.
used to contrast with and prepare for the return of the A section or further contrasting material.
The harmonies of the 1930 George and Ira Gershwin song "I Got Rhythm." AABA
A basic 12-bar chord progression that may be varied depending on the blues or jazz style.
A song that, unlike the vast majority of popular music, outlasts its contemporaries and enjoys a long-lasting place in the current repertories.
The composition of a new melody to fit the harmonic and formal structure of a previously composed popular song.
African American songs that arose in the nineteenth century and consisted of religious lyrics with folk melodies. They were often harmonized for vocal choir.
The unexpected accenting of a "weaker" melody note or off-beat. Syncopation displaces the accent, or emphasis, from an expected, to an unexpected position. For example, because the first and third beats are usually emphasized in each bar of a 4/4 piece, emphasizing the second beat would be syncopation. In general, syncopation involves unexpected accents occurring within a regular pules stream.
Many popular songs in the early 20th century included a verse as an introduction to the chorus.
where slaves and free blacks congregated on Sunday in New Orleans and played music together (particularly drums) and danced
red-light district of New Orleans where prostitution was legal; early jazz musicians would come play for the prostitutes
early form of Broadway, touring shows that included performances mocking African Americans
cornetist; one of key figures in ragtime and early jazz; he could be heard playing from miles away because he was so powerful; no one has ever heard him play because there are no recordings of him
made the trumpet famous (1927)
movement of African Americans from south to big cities in north which brought New Orleans Dixieland jazz to Chicago
early Dixieland musician in New Orleans who played clarinet and sax and soprano saxophone
Dixieland cornet player and bandleader; used a lot of mutes; moved to Chicago; took Louis Armstrong and brought him to Chicago to be in his band; both played cornet and established the back and forth playing; used mutes a lot
Jelly Roll Morton
first great jazz arranger who started in New Orleans and then began touring country playing jazz and then officially moved to Chicago; he wrote many arrangements
focusing on melodic statements and upper extensions of chords, was more refined; less risky, grew more out classical European tradition; played in Chicago; followed main rhythm of piano rather than cross rhythms like Louis Armstrong; sweet band soloist apart of Whiteman's band
Tin Pan Alley
area of New York City where music publishers and songwriters dominated; could walk in and hear new tunes and buy sheet music
the development of the Harlem neighborhood in NYC that became the centrale locale for all black artists and culture
James P Johnson
known as the father of stride piano
bandleader and composer; played with Bix in sweet band; known as the King of Jazz because he produced the first million recorded copy of jazz called "Whispering"
Mary Lou Williams
most famous pianist and composer especially for women in jazz; apart of Twelve Clouds of Joy; wrote and arranged for Ellington and Goodman
dance bands that crisscrossed specific regions of US; Kansas City was huge hub
important for use of electrical guitar who was more amplified and in front of sound; member of big band with Benny Goodman
amateur jazz vocalist who got her start singing at small clubs; Chick Webb discovered her and brought her in to his band; very full and powerful voice with wide range, lots of improvising
jazz singer and songwriter who played with Lester Young; very emotional, smaller range, did not improvise
club and bar where place where Bebop jazz was born; bebop collaboratory and place of jam sessions
4 major bebop musicians
Charlie Parker (sax), Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), Thelonious Monk (piano), and Kenny Clarke (drummer)
jazz drummer who was influential in bebop movement
what the young, fresh jazz musicians called the old, purist advocates who clung to old jazz music during the bebop movement
a young follower of jazz who affected the dress, speech, and manner of jazz musicians in the new bebop style (Bohemianism)
pianist compared to Art Tatum due to his virtuosity in both hands but he plays incredibly fast tempo only in right hand; adopted Charlie Parker's style to piano
Miles Davis First Quintet
Miles Davis (trumpet)
John Coltrane (saxophone)
Red Garland (piano)
Philly Joe Jones (drums)
Paul Chambers (bass)
3 instruments in front line of New Orleans
trombone, saxophone/clarinet and cornet
Bessie Smith and James P Johnson on piano; call and response between vocals and piano; blues style
composer was Duke Ellington; early swing/big band; has a flipped New Orleans front line
Miles Davis from Birth of Cool Jazz album in 1949; more relaxed time, more melodic - not sitting on upper extensions of chords
Bud Powell on piano - right hand similar to Parker's lines on saxophone; bebop style
featuring only Art Tatum - more left hand involved in chords; take on original Dixieland Jazz Band song
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Tiger Rag, played in 1917 in New Orleans; early jazz and Dixieland
Robert Johnson - playing around with blues form on guitar unlike others before
featuring Louis Armstrong; King Oliver's band; early jazz/ragtime from 1923
West End Blues
written by Louis Armstrong - starts off with trumpet solo showcasing things never before done on trumpet; a lot slower than many other early jazz songs; more in blues style
Lester Leaps In
Lester Young featured in Count Basie's band; fast walking bass and saxophone solo in the middle; swing/big band
Body and Soul
became a jazz standard for saxophone because of Coleman Hawkins part; playing vertically over chord changes; swing/big band
difference between Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young
Lester is more horizontal, Coleman is more vertical
Charlie Christian on guitar (amplified, more in front with sound) with Benny Goodman band; coming out of classical repertoire, the horns are very strict and tight in the back; swing/big band style
Straight No Chaser
metric displacement technique used by Thelonious Monk; different scale and chord choices melodically in piano, less virtuosity; bebop style
from Kind of Blue album; Miles Davis composed with Bill Evans on piano and Cannonball Adderley and Coltrane on saxophone; simple chords but playing with how instruments interact with each other
contrafact of Cherokee (traditional jazz standard), Charlie Parker on saxophone; bebop style
first time congas are heard (played by Chano Pozo) and shows the Latin influence on rhythms; composed by Dizzy Gillespie; bebop style
Maple Leaf Rag
composed by Scott Joplin (piano); early ragtime
Black Bottom Swamp
Jelly Roll Morton and Red Hot Peppers band in 1926; early jazz and Dixieland; more upbeat than blues influenced jazz
Fletcher Henderson; early swing style; no longer front and back line but rather breaking up instruments into sections and arranging for whole band
bebop style; solo with Charlie Parker on sax; written by Dizzie Gillespie; horns back and forth in the beginning
written by Thelonious Monk with Cootie Williams band; melody does not sit where it used to; bebop style
I Could Write a Book
Miles Davis and his great quintet; cool jazz style
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