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Online Sociology 1000 Mizzou Brent Final Exam
Terms in this set (171)
an ordered set of relationships among social actors having shared meaning (Olson, 1968).
the social processes and social structures that
develop in groups
doing something because of the influence of the group, peer pressure
in a very dark room with only a single point of light visible, people think the light moves because they have no reference points for comparison
Muzafer Sherif (1935)
study of group pressure on conformity
The effects of group pressure on conformity
Solomon Asch (1952)
The objective was to have the confederates in the group create a situation in which there was pressure to conform to the group on a judgment task when the group was wrong.
vertical line test
occurs when individual group members oppose the decision of a group but are afraid to speak out against what they perceive to be the group consensus. In such situations, dissensus
may be viewed as disloyalty. --Irving Janis (1967)
common in small groups with strong leaders
members of a group holding the highest status within the group tend to be people who hold higher statuses outside the group as well.
Strodtbeck, Simon and Hawkins
Studied the effects of diversity on group participation and influence by having people participate in mock juries.
tasks where the performance of the group can only be as good as the performance of the weakest link or weakest member.
tasks where if any one individual can solve them, then the entire group is likely to solve them as well.
actions which benefit others at no benefit, perhaps even at some risk to the individual who takes those actions.
Diffusion of responsibilty
- a tendency for members of a group to each assume others will take responsibility for a decision or action and hence, not taking responsibility themselves.
(Cooley, 1909) - a group in which people
have intimate face-to-face associations that endure for long periods of time.
-families, roomates etc.
- group that is large and impersonal, members do not know each other intimately or completely, there are weak ties, and the group typically has a less profound impact on the members.
any group a person considers when evaluating his or her actions or characteristics.
-peers, family, religious group
a group one belongs to and identifies with
a group to which people feel they do not belong.
a series of social relationships linking individuals
directly to other individuals and indirectly to still other individuals.
localized, kin-based cooperative coalitions of people based on strong ties.
Carol Stack 1974
immediate friends and family
friends of friends of friends
Degrees of Seperation
shortest number of links separating two
Functional view of networks
networks have important positive features
Conflict view of networks
Rich and powerful use networks to maintain advantage
one position holds all the power
organizations encourage members to work up the appropriate channels
structure permitting everyone to communicate
directly with everyone else does not depend on third parties to forward important messages.
a form of social organization that is purposefully
constructed to meet its goals with maximum efficiency, often consisting of many individuals linked by a collective goal, roles, rules for behavior, and relationships of authority.
use force to make low levels listen
use money to make low levels listen (corporations)
coercive organizations that —regulate every aspect of a person's behavior
• Prisons and mental hospitals
use norms and values to make low levels listen
organizations established to pursue common interests whose members volunteer and often even pay to participate.
is a pervasive process characterizing
modern society in which traditional methods and standards of social organization based on tradition, belief, and even magic, are replaced with new methods and standards of social organization based on objectively calculable
(Max Weber, 1922, 1947) a formal organization that attempts to maximize efficiency and productivity through the rationalization
division of labor
every member having special duties in bureaucracy
breaking complex tasks into simpler
components and assigning different workers to perform each of those components.
a hierarchical line of authority
clearly defining each member's authority in bureaucracy
indicating who is responsible for decisions and who reports to whom.
written rules & regulations
specifying the rights and duties associated with
each position or status in the organization and procedures required for each
task in bureaucracy
with employment, promotion, and reward based on performance in bureaucracy
When employees in a formal organization
are hired, promoted, and compensated based on their performance and competence.
when members of a bureaucratic organization are unwilling to take bold decisions to handle problems in new ways and instead try to solve new problems using old methods (Veblen, 1899).
- act in a manner which is rational for the individual irrational or inefficient for the organization as a whole.
- People unwilling to make a decision at all.
- They try to avoid responsibility for success or failure.
in organizations, talented people are promoted until they reach a level where they are incompetent. Then they are no longer
promoted because they do not excel at their work (Peter and Hull, 1969:25).
is a bureaucratic norm dictating that officials carry out their duties without consideration for people as individuals.
overzealous conformity to official regulations where their rigid application becomes dysfunctional for the organization (Robert Merton (1968:254-256).
• Regardless of the original goal of any organization, that goal
is quickly replaced with the goal of self-preservation.
the flexible, implicit norms governing an
organization or group—what people actually do instead of what they are supposed to do (Blau and Meyer, 1971).
The McDonaldization of Society
Sociologist, George Ritzer (1993) argues we are still experiencing increasing rationality in
many sectors of life from fast-food to credit cards, car service, eyeglasses and completing income tax forms.
- predictability, and
behavior violating the norms or standards of a group, society, or one's peers.
varies with culture, time, and situation
a violation of criminal law for which
formal sanctions may be applied by some
eight crimes FBI uses to summarize
crimes against persons
the threat of injury or force against
people, including aggravated assault, robbery, forcible rape, and murder;
crimes against property
stealing or damaging property, including larceny/theft, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
more serious crimes punishable by a year or
less serious crimes punishable by
imprisonment for less than a year
- crimes that often occur in public settings.
Street crimes are routinely reported by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and often given attention in the media
white collar crimes
crimes committed by relatively
affluent white-collar workers usually in the course of conducting their daily business activities and are usually possible only because of the social statuses (particularly occupations) they occupy.
are crimes only because of the
"status" of the people who commit them.
crimes committed by a
collection of criminals who regulate criminal
behavior among themselves
are crimes committed within or
direct against a political system
crimes against social order
are actions viewed as immoral acts. These include gambling,
prostitution, illegal drug use, and public
the methods used for regulating human
behavior in a society
internalized social control
exerted on the individual in
terms of the norms, values, and beliefs that they adopt as they are socialized into a society.
the shared norms, values, and
beliefs of a society
are actions directed at a person
with the intent of punishing him or her for some deviant behavior
—the exclusion or banning of a person from
the normal activities of a group.
the person is viewed as somehow
socially unacceptable or disgraced.
—a view of what is morally correct that they
recognize is limited to people in that situation and is widely rejected by the larger society.
define behaviors as crimes and write laws to
enforce the laws
identifies positive contributions of
deviance to society
functional view of deviance
deviance a consequence of structural
strain in societies lacking legitimate means to
achieve shared cultural goals for everyone
functional view of deviance
builds on Durkheim's argument
that internalized norms are a major form of
functional view of deviance
actions are consistent with customs, norms, and prevailing public opinion. Conformity is most likely when the individual both subscribes to the values of the
larger society and has access to legitimate means for
occurs when a person displays overt conformity to norms of behavior without a commitment to the values
which are the basis for those norms.
accepts the values of the dominant culture but
rejects the accepted means for achieving those values.
eg drug dealers
rejects the goals and means for achieving
them but offers no alternatives.
eg hippies, drug addicts
- rejects both the goals and means of a society in favor of some alternative.
Control theory view of deviance
Reckless (1973) argues that everyone is tempted by opportunities for deviant behavior, but deviant acts are less likely when the individual's bonds to society are strong.
Hirschi (1969) argues people have an
inner control system —an individual's capacity
to resist temptation including conscience,
internalized morality, religious principles, fear of
punishment, sense of integrity, and desire to be
any act becomes deviant only when
labeled as deviant by others
distinctive social characteristic identifying its
owner as disgraced
occasional deviance which does not affect an
individual's performance of roles or self-image.
deliberate deviance where the person
committing the act also recognizes it as deviance. The deviant role becomes the organizing role for the person.
techniques of neutralization
-denying responsibility for the act
-denying that anyone was seriously harmed
-denying that one person is more a victim than another
-condemning the condemners
-appealing to higher loyalties
medicalization of deviance
deviant acts become defined as
residual rule-breaking deviance
behaviors such as inappropriate expressions of emotions, gestures and in general behaviors that make others uncomfortable and lead them to label the person as strange, dangerous, or perhaps even sick.
cultural transmission theory
deviance is transmitted through socialization
Shaw and McKay (1929)
Differential association theory
-Variant of cultural transmission theory
-(Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey, 1978)
-argues people are more likely to be deviant to the extent they are exposed to deviants
the structure of social inequality
in a society, i.e., the distribution of wealth, status, and power among people occupying different social statuses.
-one's social status is determined completely by birthright and it is irrevocable.
-Social mobility from one caste to another is quite unlikely.
-E.g., India's traditional system.
-traditional stratification system
-the basis for stratification is birthright
-a person's family ties are the primary determinant of their social standing
-people can marry outside their own clan (exogamy) and this is often employed
as a means to forge alliances among clans.
-E.g., Somalia and Iraq
-traditional stratification system
-there are three main estates: the nobility, the church, and peasants.
-Since only eldest sons inherited all the wealth, other sons of noblemen had to
enter the clergy or make a living in some other way.
-Estate systems permit more social mobility than a caste system.
-E.g., feudal Europe and some Asian nations
-traditional stratification system
Traditional stratification systmes
-based on ascribed statuses
Modern industrialized societies
class system based on achieved status
class system is influenced greatly by
one's education, income, and occupational prestige.
Theories of social stratification
-The Functional View of Stratification
-Conflict Views of Stratification
-Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective
-The Social Construction of Inequality
Functional theory of social stratification
Inequality is nearly universal in all societies, and
it exists because it has positive functions for
Conflict views of social stratification
- karl marx argued workers were abused by capitalists
-Erik Wright changed it to 4 classes
Blatant efforts to display status through the possession or consumption of status symbols
consists of the property or economic resources owned by someone and not required for immediate consumption, such as buildings, factories, cars, stocks, bank accounts.
most common way to measure wealth
household wealth based on the difference between assets and liabilities
net financial assets
(household wealth after equity in homes and
vehicles has been deducted) provides a more realistic estimate of the liquid assets of people (liquid assets are financial assets which can
easily and quickly be converted to cash).
refer to the activities, behaviors, possessions, and other, often visible, characteristics of how an individual spends their time and money. These often reflect social class and may be used as ways for an individual to advertise his or her social class to others.
refer to the likelihood of realizing a certain quality of life, or the probability of experiencing certain positive or negative outcomes in life such as material goods and favorable life experiences. People born into higher social classes are more likely to go to college,
get a good job, and be healthy than someone born into a poor family.
changing one's social status and thereby changing one's social ranking in the stratification system.
horizontal social mobility
is mobility in which sons are no better off
than their fathers in terms of social prestige, wealth, or power.
vertical social mobility
occurs when there is a significant increase
("upward mobility) or decrease ("downward mobility) in social standing as measured by social status, class, or power.
Intergenerational social mobility
is the change in social standing of
children in relation to their parents.
refers to changes in social standing for one
person over the course of their lifetime.
mobility resulting from changes in a society's occupational structure or stratification system rather than from individual achievement—that has been made possible by the industrialization of the economy and the expansion of new white collar jobs.
a greater tendency for occupational status to be attained by achievement rather than inheritance.
is a condition of deprivation in which
people have too little money or other resources to obtain all they need for basic survival.
is deprivation experienced by some
people in contrast to others who have more.
culture of poverty
a subculture associated with people in lower
social classes thought to encourage them to become resigned to their fate and to discourage personal achievement.
government policies and programs which primarily benefit the wealthy
and large corporations
-This theory views countries as modernized or developing.
-It assumes that every country would be better off it were
-It argues modernized countries should help poor developing countries become modern by investing in them and engaging in trade to grow their economies.
-This theory takes a functional view of the world and has been used to justify exploitation of developing countries by modernized countries.
theories that argue rich industrialized countries keep poor countries underdeveloped and dependent on them to serve their own needs (Wallerstein, 1976, 1979, 1980).
-A modern revision of the theory of imperialism first developed by Lenin (1927). Imperialism argued that powerful countries used the resources of less powerful countries to favor their own interests and without fair compensation for those resources.
-Divides countries into peripheral countries, core countries, semi-peripheral countries
the most dependent countries, having low levels of industrialization, weak secondary and tertiary sectors of their economy with most of their production in the primary sector,
-high levels of investment from other
countries, and unable to ward off
interference in their internal politics by other
-E.g., third world countries such as
Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, and Sri Lanka.
-the dominant countries in world-system theory, having high levels of industrialization,
-strong secondary and tertiary sectors
of the economy,
-high levels of political autonomy to
pursue their own interests, and
-heavy investments in other countries.
-E.g., the United States, Germany, and
-are the countries between the core countries and peripheral countries, having intermediate levels of industrialization,
-some development in their secondary
and tertiary sectors, and
-greater autonomy than peripheral
-E.g., countries like Brazil, Greece, and
refers to a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics that distinguish them from others.
refers to a people who are perceived to belong to the same broad category loosely based on a number of visible shared physical characteristics such as skin color, hair, and facial features.
a category of people defined on the basis of
their cultural characteristics and common
a subordinate group that occupies an inferior position of prestige, wealth and power.
rigidly held (usually negative) attitudes, beliefs,
and feelings toward members of another group or people occupying a social status because they occupy that status.
an ideology or rationale used to justify prejudice and discrimination toward members of another race based on a belief in the inherent superiority of one racial group and the inherent inferiority of others
the unfavorable treatment of people, denying them opportunities or rights because of their group membership or for other arbitrary reasons.
- discrimination that stems from prejudicial attitudes; that is, behaviors taken with the intent to discriminate.
organizational practices and societal trends that exclude minorities from economic opportunity, power, and prestige.
is the systematic killing of people within one category, often with the intent of eliminating the entire category of people.
the forcible ejection of a minority from
- E.g., the Trail of Tears
the use of harassment, discrimination, and persecution to encourage minorities to
policies that refuse admission or citizenship to
certain categories of people.
- policies that exploit a minority
group by excluding it from equal participation
the formal separation of
different categories of people
occurs when a minority group is absorbed into
the dominant culture.
occurs when minorities are integrated into primary and secondary social relationships
with the dominant group, working in the same organizations, attending the same schools, living in the same neighborhoods, and so on.
occurs when the minority groups
internalizes the norms, values, and behaviors of the dominant culture.
occurs when minorities adopt the traits of the
dominant group to produce a homogeneous society centered around the dominant group
a view of assimilation in which ethnic groups contribute to the creation of a new society and culture different from that any single
group brought with them.
occurs when ethnic and racial
groups coexist equally while preserving their distinctive identities. This is the most tolerant of policies toward minorities.
is the social status associated with a
a system of social relationships in which
men dominate women
a belief that one sex is superior to the other,
often used to justify patriarchy
the distribution of wealth, power, and social prestige among men and women.
pink collar jobs
jobs dominated by females
jobs requiring similar levels of education and
training should be paid at comparable levels regardless of whether they are
predominately female or predominately male occupations.
a barrier that, while not obvious and
easily visible, blocks women's movement into the top ranks of management.
occurs when the day-to-day
operations, rules, and policies of organizations and institutions discriminate against one sex.
a desperate, but ultimately ill-fated
attempt to arrest the progress of technology in the workplace to save
the jobs of people being displaced by that new technology.
also known as scientific management
applies scientific and engineering principles to human labor, by breaking a complex task into
simple components, and replacing skilled workers who performed the whole task before with less skilled and less expensive workers who
perform each of the new highly specialized and simplified tasks.
a process of production in which products are
standardized, parts are interchangeable, precision tools fit parts together
precisely, and the production is mechanized to produce a continuous
a mode of production in which a complex task is
broken into individual tasks with each worker performing only one or a
few of the tasks repeatedly.
occurs when there is a reduction in expertise, training, and experience required to perform a job, such as by converting a job into a specific series of simple, repetitive tasks.
an underclass of unemployed or
underemployed people experiencing very difficult circumstances and
surviving any way they can.
the knowledge, tools, and machines
used to produce artifacts or manipulate the environment.
a process in which jobs and roles become more complex as new knowledge is created, permitting us to do things we could never do before, opening up new commercial markets, and requiring increased training and skills on the part of workers.
a large segment of the economy such as the
primary sector (agricultural production), secondary (manufacturing), or
tertiary (service) sectors.
dual labor market
a market in which there is a relatively advantaged primary form of employment and a relatively disadvantaged secondary
form of employment.
primary labor market
enjoy relatively good working conditions, reasonably high pay, opportunity for advancement, and—most important—job security.
secondary labor market
They routinely experience high turnover, low job security, few or no benefits, low wages, and little opportunity for advancement.
consists of all economic transactions
involving income that is not reported to the government as required by law
the increased interaction among
people, countries, and companies around the world uniting them into a single worldwide political and economic system of interrelationships.
commercial organizations whose operations span international boundaries.
people who manipulate information: data, words, and oral and visual symbols— including lawyers, management consultants, investment bankers, scientists, academics, and so on.
routine production services
—repetitive tasks for producing a finished product.
routine personal services
repetitive tasks for providing a service
is a process of defining a type of work as a
profession (Parsons, 1954; Goode, 1960).
alienation from work
the breakdown of the natural connections people have with their work and with other people through their work
a type of work activity requiring the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service.
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