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Ap world: chapter 22
Terms in this set (40)
What distinguished the end of Europes African and Asian colonial empires in the second half of the twentieth century from other cases of imperial disintegration?
The mobilization of the masses around a nationalist ideology
In contrast to the first decolonization of the Americas in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the struggles for independence in Africa and Asia in the second half of the twentieth century...
Affirmed the vitality of precolonial cultures
What represented a fundamental contradiction that undermined the colonial enterprise in the second half of the twentieth century?
The ideal of national self determination was at odds with the denial of independence to colonies
What changes in the international arena in the second half of the twentieth century contributed to the end of European colonial rule?
The United Nations provided an international platform from which to conduct anti colonial agitation
What was a social or economic circumstance within the European colonies that contributed to anticolonial movements?
The growing number of western educated colonial elites who no longer viewed colonial rule as a vehicle for their peoples progress
What was an initial goal of the Indian National Congress (INC)?
Gaining a positions of influence in British India to protect Indian interests
In contrast to Indians' struggle for independence in the twentieth century, black South African's struggle for control of their country was...
Waged against an internal community of permanent white settlers who controlled the country
How did the system of apartheid of South Africa come to an end?
Through negotiations between the white south african government and black south african nationalist leaders
In Africa in the early 1980s, what happened to the political parties that had led the movements for independence from colonial rule?
Most were soon swept away by military coups
In Africa, which of the following contributed to the loss of popular support for the democratic institutions established in the wake of independence from colonial rule?
Poor economic performance
What accounts from the resurgence of democracy in many developing countries in the decades since the 1980's?
The failure of authoritarian governments to address economic and social problems
What characterizes the economic strategy of most countries in the developing world since the late twentieth century?
Dependance on the market to generate economic growth
What group of developing countries has been the most successful in stimulating economic growth and industrialization in the late twentieth century?
East Asian countries
The reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey in the early twentieth century?
Removed Islam from public life
What resulted from the so called White Revolution of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Iran?
Discontent and resentment that paved the way for an Islamic revolution
What reflects a task of newly independent nation states in the aftermath of decolonization in Africa and Asia in the second half of the twentieth century?
The building of modern economics, stable politics, and coherent nations
What country became a new nation state in the late 1940's?
What represented a form of imperialism without territorial possessions that came under attack in the twentieth century?
US influence in Latin America
What was a common characteristic of the leaders of independence movements in European colonies in Asia and Africa in the second half of the twentieth century?
They were educated
What did all nationalist movements in Asia and Africa in the second half of the twentieth century share in common?
The goal of political independance
What served as a unifying factor in South Asia before British colonial rule?
In contrast to previous foreign rulers in India, the British were the only ones to...
Never assimilate into Indian society
What characterized Mohandas Gandhi's agenda in India's struggle for independence?
A nostalgic return to pre-industrial society composed of self-sufficient villages
What group favored a broad alliance if everyone opposed to apartheid regardless of race?
The African National Congress
What describes a feature of the strategy of the African National Congress in their resistance to the South African government from 1950 to 1994?
Non violent civil disobedience against apartheid
What launched a revolutionary but short lived program to achieve a peaceful transition to socialism in the early 1970's?
Chile under Salvador Allende
In the global south, what was the standard by which people measured and grand ed legitimacy to their governments?
What describes how the Ayatollah Khomeini viewed the revolution he had launched in Iran?
As a model for other Islamic countries to follow
What exercised the dominant power in the new government established in the wake of the Iranian revolution?
Refer to map 22.2 in the textbook. In the partition of British India in 1947, why was Pakistan made up of two regions flanking India?
The two regions were populated by Muslims
What reflects Mustafa Kemal Agatürk's view of the caliphate?
"... It would be in contradiction to the independence of the state, to the sovereignty of the people."
What reflects the Ayatollah Khomeini's view of the relationship between religion and politics?
"Islamic government is the government of divine right, and its laws cannot be changed, modified, or contested."
Who would most disagree with the Ayatollah Khomeini's opinion that "the ludicrous use of the Western hat stands in the way of our independence and is contrary to the will of Allah"?
Mustafa Kemal Aratürk
What statement reflects the progressive interpretation of Islam expressed by Sheikh Kabir Helminski?
"Islamic civilization... Affirms religious pluralism, cultural diversity, and human rights, and recognized the value of reason and individual conscience."
What reflects Ayaan Hirsi Ali's view of the west?
"The secret of the Dutchman's success is his ability to adapt to invent."
What detail in the poster in Visual Source 22.1 is a direct reference to the African National Congress?
The flag in the front
In visual source 22.2, what country is represented by the B-52 depicted in the Vietnamese poster?
The United States
In visual source 22.3, the fruits on the left side of the poster link Israel to...
The biblical description of the "promised land"
What does the poster in Visual Source 22.4 suggest about Palestinian goals in the contested territories between Israel and Palestine?
To peacefully reclaim the land Palestinians had once farmed
Of the various struggles for political independence from foreign domination portrayed in visual sources, which group is still struggling to reclaim the land they once held?
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