Anatomy Final

Pineal Gland
produces melatonin
cricoid cartilage
carbon dioxide transport by hemoglobin
Haldane effect
oxygen Transport
Bohr Effect
Renal Medulla
Sense of Taste
Facial nerve
Cardiac Pacemaker
SA node
ventricular septum
AV bundle branches
Adrenal Medulla
Muscles of Mastication
Trigeminal Nerve
inner layer of digestive tract muscles
circular smooth muscle
outer layer of digestive tract muscles
longitudinal smooth muscle
blood flow to the liver is provided by
hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery
vascular granulocytes
neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
cerebrospinal fluid is produced by
choroid plexus
cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed into circulatory by
arachnoid granules
ventricle that surrounds the thalamus
3rd ventricle
ventricle that is located just below the cerebellum
4th ventricle
temporal lobe of brain is associated with
hearing and speech
celiac trunk gives rise to which arteries?
hepatic, gastric, splenic
hemoglobin's affinity to oxygen decreases because of
carbonic acid formation and 2,3 - DPG
NaCl is primarily reabsorbed by the
ascending loop of the nephron
in the glomerulus, the efferent renal arteriole has a much higher ___ than the afferent renal arteriole
In a normal EKG, the "P-wave" is associated with
atrial depolarization
a hormone associated with both milk-letdown and uterine contractions is
the name of the stomach region where the esophagus enters is the
cardiac region
area of GI tract which is basically a dead-end fermentation vat for bacterial digestion of carious starches and sugars is the
bilirubin is removed from the blood and transported to bile by the
spleen and liver
universal blood donor
O blood type (it doesn't have any antigens on it)
production of RBC
starling's Law
greater preload = greater contraction; need more cross bridges of cardiac muscle cells for stronger contraction
scala tympani
located in cochlea in inner ear; contains perilymph; associated with hearing
Cardiac output
CO =HR x SV ; how much blood is pumped out in one beat
juxtamedullary nephrons
the longest nephron in the renal medulla; creates the medullary osmotic gradient
part of the diencephalon region of the brain; located above the hypothalamus; sensory input
part of the maculae; involved in static equilibrium
portal vein
between two capillary beds
white blood cells hat secrete antibodies as an immune system defense mechanism
describe 4 ways intestines increase their surface area
intestinal villi, microvilli (line the villi), plicae circularis (highly elongated), haustra
P wave
atrial depolarization
QRS complex
Ventricular depolarization
T wave
ventricular repolarization
epitheleal tissue
squamous cells
orbital cavities
pH = 6
connective tissue
fatty acids
pH = 8
pleural cavity
dorsal cavity
electron sharing is found in
ionic bonds
weak bonds that induce the cohesion between water molecules are called
covalent bonds
protein assembly occurs within the
rough ER
form the rough ER proteins are transported to the
Golgi Apparatus for further processing and packaging
transitional stratified cells are found in the
air sacs in the lung are composed of
simple squamous cell epithelium
osteocytes are found within the small "lake" like structures called ______ and are part of the _____ system of histological units making up boney matrix
lacunae , Havarsian
cartilaginous joint in the pelvis uniting the 2 pubic bones of the hip is made up of _____ and is referred to as a ___ joint.
fibrocartilage , symphysis
the fibula is __ to the tibia
lateral to the tibia
the heart is located in which body cavity?
the simplest chemical substance is an
within a cell, lipid and steroid production primarily occurs in this structure
smooth ER
during mitosis, what is the stage where chromosomes first appear in the cell
a gland where product release is brought about by part of the cell pinching off (ex. in mammalary glands)
apocrine gland
adipose tissue is a form of which tissue group
when placed in a hypertonic solution, a red blood cell will
this macromolecule is composed of multiple subunits of amino acids
which bone cell is primarily activated when blood calcium levels are low?
the relationship between form an f unction in the body; the study of how the parts of a system effect each other
connective, epithelium, muscular, nervous, osseous; tissue is made up of fibers, cels and fluids to allow for smooth processes to occur
the amount of negative charge that a molecule has; if it is very electronegative it will have many electrons around it
when there are more active osteoclasts than osteoblasts and osteocytes. Bone degrades faster than it is built.
the synthesis, or build up of a molecule; opposite of catabolism part of metabolism
cells found in connective tissue, along with mast cells and macrophages; its found in alveolar (loose) connective tissue
the middle, or shaft, of a long bone, where primary ossification occurs
joint between your teeth and mandible
when you spread your fingers, or your arms/legs away from your body; opposite of adduction
osteoid lamellae
concentric rings that are part of compact bone
why will you never be able to find a cell which is as big as a loaf of bread?
they can maximize their ratio of surface area to volume. as a cell grows, its surface area increase less than its volume does. cells must be able to change form depending on their function in an organism. They need a decent surface area in oder to better interact with other cells and molecules. they do this via cilia and microvilli. cells also want to be small in volume in order to more strictly regulate what can pass through it, such as chemicals, proteins and food. another reason cells need to be small is to prevent the unnecessary used of energy. they would waste energy on maintaining their size if they were as big as a loaf of bread.
describe 3 properties of water that make it essential for life as we know it
universal solvent - breaks down many molecules and this is important for biological processes

high heat capacity - water takes a long time to heat up, but once its heated it maintains that temp. for a long time, and it takes a while for it to cool. this is good for homeostasis.

cohesion - water is a polar covalent molecule that is able to hydrogen bond with molecules. it allows for cohesion in areas such as the lungs, which prevents the alveoli from collapsing upon exhalation.