Sociology

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Cherlin
on marriage norms: deinstitutionalization, single parents, change in division of labor, equal marriage rights, cult of the individual
Giddens
on marriage norms: pure relationship, people choose to be in a relationship, not forced, as long as your happy the relationship will keep going, not interested in best marriages, you can pull out of relationship when you want
Regnerus
on marriage norms: sex has lost its meaning, women do not expect anything in return, people aren't marrying until they think their social lives (in terms of sexual relations) are slowing down
Finkel
on marriage norms: the importance that your doing what's best for you, self-expressive, importance of self growth, all or nothing(hard to achieve but the best), due to contemporary ideas of marriage, those that are married are in the best marriage
primary factors in intimate partner: attraction, relationships maintenance/progress, and dissolution
proximity effect, similarity, physical appearance,
proximity
we are attracted to people who we are exposed to, the more exposure the more likely we are to be attracted to them, more likely we interact and see the more likely to become our friends and partners
similarity
a match between our interests, attitudes, values, background, or personality and those of another person, it eliminates conflict if you aren't believing in different things and may come across things that don't agree on, we are looking for someone like ourself
physical attractiveness
tendency to associate attractiveness with positive qualities occurs cross-culturally
what makes people stay/leave relationship
social exchange theory, equity theory
social exchange theory
the idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on perceptions of rewards and costs, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else
equity theory
the idea that people are happiest with relationships in which rewards and costs experienced and both parties' contributions are roughly equal
why do relationships fail?
pre-existing doom, mechanical failure, sudden death
pre-existing doom
incompatibility and failure are almost predestined, socioeconomic-political views-disagreement on kids or not-disagreement on marriage-long distance
mechanical failure
two suitable people of goodwill and good nature nevertheless find they cannot live together (the most common cause), starting to clean up after them-hygiene imbalance, time-one may be working a lot while other not, lack of space- no room for you to have your own time, morning away for school-work
sudden death
the discovery of a betrayal or infidelity can lead to the immediate termination of a romantic relationship
cultural shifts in defining family
early middle ages: big family, marriage based on survival, not much deep love for children
In between: industrial revolution happened so there were separate-spheres with gender stereotypes(men at work, women at home)
Late 19th century-20th century: smaller families, machinery took place of children, people marrying for love (traditional nuclear family), labor force changed (economic change), love and affection for children
definition of family
genetic ties, proximity, blood tie, lifelong commitment, support system
modern family
nuclear family (SNAP), mom, dad, daughter, son, all white family, start to have interracial marriage (Loving vs Virginia allowed interracial marriages), number of couples with children decreases, marriage on decline, increase in single parents
Boomerang Generation and Accordion Family
Newman: kids are coming back home after school for financial reasons, emotional reasoning, supporting parents, then you have a multigenerational household
interracial marriages
Mildred and Richard Loving were a interracial couple, there is family tension, others view you differently, rewards: being exposed to different cultures, social function (would be minimizing social tensions in society)
childhood
middle ages: childhood didn't exist, no distinct line between adult and children, went from infancy to adulthood, kids in paintings were depicted as mini adults, made them independent as early as possible so they were economically useful
16thc.-early 20thc.: children were ideal labor force, post-depression adults didn't have jobs and so children were competing for the same jobs which is when child labor laws were put into play, decrease in mortality rate due to better sanitation and protection , more advances in technology for safety
Late 20th century: family size dropped, helicopter parents due to child abductions, "concerted cultivation"-provided your kids with everything and making them competitive, Dr. Spock tells image of perfect parenting-parents start to freak out and think they are doing it wrong,
3things that changed childhood: great depression, industrial revolution, child abductions
free and risky play
1)exploring heights 2) handling dangerous tools 3) being near dangerous elements 4) rough and tumble play 5) speed 6) independent exploration ex. The Land