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SGU Anatomy 2: Ruminant Set 1
Terms in this set (93)
How is the subcutis of the ruminants compared to the carnivores and ungulates?
firmer and less mobile
Which surfaces of the skin are thickest?
extensor surfaces of the limbs and lateral surfaces of the trunk are much thicker than other surfaces
What are the areas of major skin thickness in the bovine? pigs? horse?
What is the fat called that is found in the subcutis of the pig?
Where are fat deposits in the subcutis found in the stallion? zebu breeds of cattle? sheep?
stallion: crest of the neck
zebu breeds of cattle: hump
sheep: tails of fat-tailed sheep
What are wattles/tassels and which species have them?
elongated, narrow cartilage bar contianing skin derivatives; project vertically caudal to the angle of the jaw
found in the goat; rarely in sheep and pig
What species have cutaneous sinuses/pouches?
Where is the infraorbital sinus?
rostral to the eyes
**waxy, straw-colored secretions
Name the cutaneous sinuses in the sheep
infraorbital sinus, inguinal sinus, interdigital sinus
What species have horn glands? What are they used for?
goat and sheep
used for territorial marking
Carnivores have _____ glands that are used for territorial marking
caudal (coccygeal) glands
What species has subcaudal glands? Where are they found?
under the base of the tail
What glands are found in all mammals? Which are found in all species?
all mammals: mammary glands
all species: preputial glands
Horns develop from _________ and is covered by ______ at the base
develops from cornual process of the frontal bone
covered by cornual dermis
How does the ligamentum nuchae differ from the horse?
laminar portion is divided into cranial and caudal; funicular part in the ox extends into the thoracic region
Which part of the laminar portion of the ligamentum nuchae is paired?
***caudal part is NOT paired!!!
Why is the friction of the funicular part of the ligamentum nuchae less in the ox compared to the horse?
b/c in the ox the funicular part slants ventrolaterally over the summits of the spinous processes
What species has no ligamentum nuchae? Why?
pig; because neck muscles are well developed
What part of the rhomboideus muscle is absent?
What part of the rhomboideus muscle in the bos indicus forms part of the hump lying over the withers?
What are the two parts of the cleidocephalicus muscle in the bovine/ovine and pig?
cleidooccipitalis and cleidomastoideus
The tendon of the cleidomastoideus fuses with the tendon of the sternocephalicus in what species?
True/False: sternocephalicus is an extrinsic muscle of the forelimb
The sternocephalicus muscle has 2 divisions in what species? Is undivided in what species?
2 divisions in the ox and goat (and carnivores)
undivided in sheep
What muscle is absent in carnivores, vestigial in ox but well developed in goats?
The subclavius muscle extends from _____ to _____ in the goat
from the costal cartilage 1 to the clavicular intersection
What is the direction of growth and regression of the thymus gland?
What are the lobes of the thymus gland in ruminants?
2 cervical: from rib 1 to larynx
thoracic lobes: in ventral mediastinum
What happens to the thymus gland at full regression?
cervical part disappears and caudal part is fibrotic
What gland is called sweet bread and is eaten by some people?
thymus gland of ruminants
In the ox, the thymus gland is large and extends from ___ to _____
larynx to pericardium
The cranial and middle groups of the deep cervical lymph nodes are absent in what species?
small ruminants and pigs
The caudal group of deep cervical lymph nodes are well developed in most species except ____
Describe the location and general appearance of the thyroid gland
caudal to the larynx on the sides of the trachea
bilobed and brown-red in color
The isthmus of the thyroid gland is glandular in what species? fibrous in what species?
glandular: ox, pig, dog
fibrous: small ruminants, horse, cat
The body of the thyroid gland is lobulated and flattened in what species?
What are the contents of the carotid sheath?
common carotid artery, vagosympathetic trunk and internal jugular vein
***note: the horse did not have the internal jugular vein
What are the borders of the jugular groove in the ox and goat?
What are the borders of the jugular groove in the sheep?
No cranial border!
What muscles cover the superficial cervical lymph nodes?
brachiocephalicus and omotransversarius
True/False: superficial cervical lymph nodes are palpatable
What are the groups of the superficial cervical lymph nodes in the pig?
dorsal, middle and ventral
The esophagus is entirely lined by striated muscle in what species?
What are the flexions of the esophagus in ruminants?
1st flexion: dorsal; between head and neck
2nd flexion: ventral; at thoracic inlet
3rd flexion: dorsal; over base of heart; between tracheal bifurcatio; permanent flexion
When are the 1st and 2nd esophageal flexions obliterated in the ruminant?
what the animal lowers its head to eat
Where are esophageal obstruction most likely to occur in the ox?
between the pharynx and esophagus, at thoracic inlet, and at the esophageal hiatus
What are the most common site of esophageal obstruction in the dog?
cranial to the base of heart and at the esophageal hiatus
Where is the line of pleural reflection in the ox?
from 7/8th costochondral junction to the mid portion of the 11th rib
Where is the line of pleural reflection in the sheep?
from 9th costochondral junction to the middle of the last rib to the cranial border of the transverse process of L1
Where is the line of pleural reflection in the goat?
from 6th costochondral junction to the ventral border of the last rib
The mediastinal pleura is thick and intact in what species?
ox and goat
What species may have an occasional opening in the mediastinum?
The location of ______ is important in hardware disease in the bovine
accessory lobe of right lung and mediastinal recess
**caudal to the region of the reticulum
What are the organs that can be affected in hardware disease?
primarily the reticulum
also: accessory lobe of right lung, pericardium, other lobes of lung, spleen, liver and caudal mediastinal lymph node
The cupula pleurae extends beyond the first rib on which side of the ruminants?
Where would you perform a thoracocentesis in the ruminant? Compare to horse and dog
ruminant: 6th or 7th intercostal space
horse: 7th intercostal space
dog: 7th of 8th intercostal space
True/False: the lungs are well lobated in ruminants and pigs
What are the parts of the right lung of ruminants?
cranial, middle, caudal and accessory
How is the cranial lung lobe divided in the ruminant?
further divided into cranial and caudal parts
**note: NOT divided in the pig!
What predisposes the right cranial lung lobe to infection and inhalation pneumonia in ruminants and pigs?
supplied by the tracheal bronchus
How is the left lung divided in ruminants and pigs?
cranial and caudal
cranial is further divided into cranial and caudal in both ruminants and pigs
Lobulation of the lungs is clearly definied in what species? poorly defined in what species?
clearly defined: ox and pig
poorly defined: sheep and goats
True/False: the clinical lung field in the ox is quite large
false- it is small
The basal edge of the lung of the ox extends from ___ to ____
6th costochondral junction to the ventral border of the epaxial muscles in the 11th intercostal space
Where are the cardiac notches in ruminants on the left side? right side?
left: 3rd-5th intercostal space
right: 3rd - 4th intercostal space
Where is the cranial lung field?
cranial to thoracic limb in first 3 intercostal spaces
What are the boundaries of the caudal lung field?
cranial: tricipital line
dorsal: epaxial muscle
The azygous veins drain what area?
cranial lumbar area and thoracic wall
**lumbar veins and dorsal intercostal veins
What veins do the azygous veins anastamose with?
venous network in the vertebral canal and also the caudal vena cava
True/False: the azygous veins are valveless
Which azygous vein develops fully in ruminants and pigs?
True/False: The right azygous vein is sometime present in the sheep and goat
The heart is found between which ribs?
How is the heart situated in ruminants? pigs?
What separates the atria from the ventricles?
cardiac skeleton = connective tissue
What are fibrous rings?
CT that surround the atriventricular and arterial openings
What happens to the 2 cartilages of the fibrous ring around the aorta with age?
ossify to become ossa cordis
What are the grooves of the ox heart?
paraconal, subsinuosal, intermediate
In ruminants (and horses), the pericardium is attached to the sternum by _____
2 sternopericardiac ligaments
Where would you perform a pericardiocentesis?
4th intercostal space at the level of the costochondral junction
What is the major artery of the ascending aorta that runs cranially?
Which coronary artery (left or right) is larger in the ruminants? pigs?
ruminants (and dog): left is bigger than right
pigs( and horse): right is bigger than left
What are the lymphocenters of the thorax?
dorsal thoracic, ventral thoracic, mediastinal and bronchial
Which of the dorsal thoracic lymph nodes are constant in the ox? Which is variable in all species?
constant in ox: intercostal lymph node
variable in all species: thoracic aortic Lnn
What are the lymph nodes of the ventral thoracic lymphocenter?
cranial and caudal sternal lymph nodes
Which of the ventral thoracic lymph nodes are covered by the transversus thoracis muscle?
caudal sternal lymph node
Which of the mediastinal lymph nodes is absent in the pig?
middle mediastinal lymph node
Which of the mediastinal lymph nodes is single and large in ruminants?
caudal mediastinal lymph node
Which of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes are absent in sheep?
right and middle tracheobronchial lymph nodes
**middle is inconstant in ox
Which of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes is only found in ruminants and pigs? Why?
cranial tracheobronchial lymph nodes; b/c that have tracheal bronchus
What happens if an animal has an enlarged left tracheobronchial lymph node?
put pressure on the et recurrent laryngeal nerve
**possible cause of roaring in horses
Bovine tuberculosis and lymphadenitis are associated with which lymph nodes?
**causes choking/damage to vagal trunks
Which lymph nodes are examined at meat inspection?
left, middle and cranial tracheobronchial
cranial, middle and caudal mediastinal
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SGU Anatomy 2: Ruminant Set 2
SGU Anatomy 2: Mammae and Ruminant Head
Anatomy 2 - Diagrams
Anatomy 2 - ALL the Test Questions
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