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44 terms

Nutritional Assessment

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The body requires fuel to provide energy for...
Cellular metabolism and repair, growth, organ function, and body movement
Nutritional status
The condition of the body in those respects influenced by the diet, the levels of nutrients in the body and the ability of those levels to maintain normal metabolic integrity
Carbohydrate
Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
What are the best sources for carbohydrates?
Whole grains, vegetables, legumes (peas and beans), tubers (potatoes), fruits, honey, and refined sugar
Glycogen
An extensively branched polysaccharide of many glucose monomers; serves as an energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells; the animal equivalent of starch
Protein
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
What are the best sources for protein?
Milk, eggs, cheese, meat, fish, and some vegetables such as soybeans
Amino acid
The building blocks of proteins and the end product of protein digestion
Fats
Nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
Lipid
A fat or fat-like substance
What are some functions of fats in the human body?
Used as energy by all body tissue except the CNS; Used to provide structure; Used to synthesize other essential compounds; Stored as adipose tissue
Adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue, consisting of masses of fat-storing cells and blood vessels to nourish them
What are some sources of fats?
Vegetable oil, animal meats
Triglycerides
A form a fats found in the bloodstream. They are transported by very low-density lipoproteins. Produced in the liver by using glycerol and other fatty acids as building blocks.
What are the normal ranges for triglycerides?
Female = 35-135mg/dl or 0.40-1.52 mmol/L; Male = 40-160mg/dl or 0.45-1.81 mmol/L
Lipoprotein
A conjugated protein having a lipid component; They are simple proteins that transport fats
HDL
High-density lipoprotein (associated with decreased incidence of coronary artery disease)
LDL
Type of lipoprotein derived from VLDL as triglycerides are moved and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol. carry cholesterol from the liver to cells of the body. Sometimes referred to as the "bad cholesterol" lipoprotein
What are normal blood levels of LDL?
Male - >45mg/dl or >0.75 mmol/L
Female - >55mg/dl or >0.91 mmol/L
What are some functions of water?
Carries away waste, Carries nutrients to all parts of the body, helps to digest food, Helps to regulate body temperature, acts as a lubricant for your groin area
Vitamins
Compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients
What are some examples of water-soluble vitamins?
Vitamins B & C
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A, D, E and K
Minerals
Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
What are come of the examples of minerals used in the human body?
Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and Iron
What are some sources of vitamin D?
Egg yokes, tuna, sunlight, milk, fish, and liver oils
What vitamin acts as an antioxidant to prevent cell membrane damage such as hemolysis?
Vitamin E
What is the vitamin that is essential for normal blood clotting?
Vitamin K
Name one fat-soluble and one water-soluble vitamin that helps with immunity
CA (fat) & C (water)
What vitamin helps maintain vision in dim light?
Vitamin A
What are two B-vitamins that help with development and maturation of red blood cells?
Vitamins B12 and B9
What is the vitamin used to promote collagen formation?
Vitamin C
Why is calcium important for the neurological system?
Regulates nerve impulse transmission and contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle
What is a primary food source of phosphorus?
Animal foods (ex: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk)
What is the vitamin that promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium?
Vitamin D
What is an extremely important function of magnesium?
Conduction of nerve impulses
What mineral helps to regulate osmotic pressure?
Sodium
What vitamin is responsible for glycolysis, fat synthesis and tissue respiration?
Vitamin B3
Why is it important to get enough potassium in your diet?
Conduction of nerve impulses
What food are good sources of potassium?
Bananas, green leafys, juices, meats, skins of baked potatoes
Chlorine is obtained from what food source?
Salt (NaCl)
What mineral is an essential component of the protein structure?
Sulfur
What food is high in sulfur?
Eggs
Iron and copper are essential for the formation of what blood cell?
RBC