Unit 2: Rock, Rebellion & Empowerment
Terms in this set (73)
Rock 'n Roll
Rock 'n Roll is a musical movement that first began in the 50s and was spearheaded by Elvis Presley. Amid a culture enveloped by fear of the Cold War, hesitation of American identity, and society's direction. This music form functioned as a way for society's anxieties to be presented.
Elvis Presley: Impact on Culture
Elvis Presley had a great impact on American culture not only through his music, but rather what it represented. Presley took rhythm, blues, country, gospel, and components of African American culture and was able to craft his own culture: integration. He recorded a month after Brown V. Board of Education and was able to foster integration in a natural manner. Presley was also able to loosen sexual attitudes of the time. His lyrics, apparel, and dance moves expressed liberalized sexuality.
Ed Sullivan Show
Ed Sullivan was able to get Presley on his show by agreeing to pay him $50,000 for 3 performances. When Elvis Presley first appeared on the Ed Sullivan show he was watched in 85% of television homes by over 50 million people. Presley's appearance allowed him to be accepted and legitimized as an artist. It allowed Sullivan's show to reach popularity.
Due to the flourish of teen culture with money to spend and clear consumer prices they were viewed as desirable customers.
The Beatniks are considered to be hippies before there were hippies. This group was also called the beat generation and it confronted apathy and conformity of American society—purposely defies norms of respectability.
Sociology of Groups: Contagion Theory
Create hypnotic effect
Abandon personal responsibility
Crowd assumes life of its own
Stirs emotions & drives to irrational or violent acts
Sociology of Groups: Convergence Theory
People who act in certain way or form a crowd (opposite of Contagion)
Diffusion of responsibility = action
Critical mass of like-minded = action
Sociology of Groups: Emergent-Norm Theory
Collectives with mixed motives/interests
Norms change as people act/others join
Make their own rules as they go
• Organized resistance
• Clear goals for change
• Unruly mobs = violence/mayhem
• Fundamental change
• Creation of a new order
Jim Crow Laws
• Named after a minstrel performer
• State laws
Regulate behavior based on race
Legalizes/ codifies segregation
Brown V. Board of Education: Supreme Court Ruling
Overturns Plessy ruling
"separate is inherently unequal"
Anytime you separate someone solely on race creates psychological damage
Brown V. Board of Education
• Linda Brown (& NAACP) challenge Topeka schools
White schools were well maintained
Black schools - shacks, no heat, one teacher
Lived close to a "white only" school
De Facto Segregation
Is segregation by customs or traditions. This establishment is hard to remove as it deals with a mindset.
De Jure Segregation
Deals with segregation by law rather than by customs.
Inspiration for Montgomery Bus Boycotts as her actions denying to give up her seat sparked rebellion.
Was the NAACP's Chief Counsel and direction of its Legal Defense and Education Fund. After WWII he focused his efforts on ending segregation in public schools. Marshall was an attorney who represented the NAACP.
Role of Churches
Churches were essential to the Civil Rights Movement, because bus boycotts could not have succeeded without support of African American churches. These places served as forums for many protest and planning meetings, and they mobilized many of the volunteers for special civil rights campaigns. Churches were also a forum that allowed individuals to speak openly and provide support and education.
The Freedom Rides were established by CORE under the leader James Farmer. Farmer asked teams of African Americans and whites to travel to the South to draw attention on the South's lack of integration. These rides often resulted in attacks of riders—gained attention.
Birmingham (Project C)
Civil rights organizers chose Birmingham, Alabama as a protest site because MLK knew it would provoke a violent response. It was also the only way for JFK to actively support civil rights.
Civil Rights of '64
The Civil Rights Act of '64 gave the federal government broad powers to prevent discrimination in a number of areas. It made segregation illegal in most places of public accommodation and gave citizen equal access to facilities. It gave more attention to lawsuits against school segregation.
Voting Rights Act of '65
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Malcom X: Revolution
Malcolm X describes the black revolution as a movement by non-whites to enact much needed change. It basically highlights the fact that colored people are the majority and that they simply want people out of their land and country.
Malcolm X: Civil V. Human Rights
The distinction is that Malcolm X is fighting to live as a free human in society. This is therefore not an issue concerning just civil rights, but the right to live a good life.
Malcolm X: Right to Vote
If African Americans were granted the right to vote a bloodless revolution would take effect. African Americans hold the balance of power and if the Constitution were altered the racist would be run out of office.
Bay View - A-A Parish working class - led group Selma March; member of MUSIC; advisor to NAACP Youth Council—open housing protests/discriminate against workers at Allen-Bradley - travel South - voter reg. drives - led Mother's Rights protest; anti -Vietnam -- leaves priesthood/ marries
lawyer - 1 st AA & 1st women to Milw. Common Council—introduces multiple open housing laws - defeated - joins forces with NAACP Y.C. - march across 16th str viaduct - arrested - appointed Mil County Circuit judge (state's 1st AA judge); 1st AA secr. of state (WI)
Milwaukee Police Chief - opposed to Civ Rts - began surveillance of NAACP/Groppi following protests - his officers harassed Youth Council Members (jail for offenses like littering) - orders officers assigned to protect Youth Council to not wear badges during demonstrations so they couldn't be identified when committing brutality
'50-'71 (to deal with crowded inner city schools) - take entire class with teachers - report to school - be bussed to another school - stay as a class (no integration) - often bussed back to original school for lunch and back --- 60's MUSIC began protests bcs this was racist & fostered segregation - protesters blocked busses --court case (L. Barbee) argued this was planned discrimination
Vel Phillips introduced several open housing laws (fair housing laws were weak) - failed - march on 16th viaduct (symbol of segre. AA north v. white south -joke longest bridge in world because it connect Africa with Poland) - met by angry crowd - threw eggs, rocks & bottles - Youth Council marches 200 consecutive nights -also launched a boycott of Schlitz & "black Christmas"(boycott commercial aspect - no gifts, decorations etc. -local business drops) - after fed gov passes open housing laws - Milw passes stronger one -
• Black Panthers (Eldridge Cleaver)
Heirs to Malcolm X
"total liberation or total destruction for America"
• "black power"
Pride in heritage
• Unruly mobs = violence/ mayhem
Nixon's policy of ending the idea that the federal government is the leader of civil rights. Idea that new gains would be made by individual states - fragments movement. This movement is because Nixon wished to restore calm
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, known as the Kerner Commission after its chair, Governor Otto Kerner, Jr. of Illinois, was an 11-member Presidential Commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson in Executive Order 11365 to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States and to provide recommendations for the future
• Name from international movement
Young intellectuals, not proletariat is revolutionary force
• SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)
'62 U of Michigan (Tom Hayden)
• SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)
'62 U of Michigan (Tom Hayden)
• Port Huron Statement
Nonviolent participatory democracy
Anti-war; pro civil rights; free speech
• Spread across campuses
• Active in protesting war
• Splinters by late 60s
Drafted SDS's manifesto, the Port Huron Statement. The objective of the Port Huron Statement was the creation of a "radically new democratic political movement" in the United States that rejected hierarchy and bureaucracy. The statement represented the emergence of a "New Left" in the United States. The New Left often worked with, but was no longer part of the remains of the American Left, after concerted government efforts to destroy it. At its annual convention, the old Student League for Industrial Democracy, the "young people's division" of the "Old Left's" League for Industrial Democracy; representatives followed Hayden adopted his manifesto, and changed its name and some of its major goal
Port Huron Statement
A 1962 political manifesto of the North American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). It was written primarily by Tom Hayden, a University of Michigan student and then the Field Secretary of SDS, with help from 58 other SDS members, and completed on June 15, 1962, at a United Auto Workersretreat in Port Huron, Michigan (now Lakeport State Park), for the group's first national convention. A few years later, however, the SDS shifted away from labor unions and more towards the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
• Self-titled group
• Exploit mass media
• Symbolic protests & theatrical pranks
• Active groups in Milwaukee & Madison
Threw mix fake/real money NYSE
Nominated pig for '68 presidency
Application to levitate the Pentagon
Application to blow up General Motors
Threated LSD in Chicago water '68
• Leaders tried for inciting riot
Found not guilty
• Radical splinter of the New Left
Want to start real revolution
• Rebellion spread across campus'
Riots & fighting erupt
Bomb chemistry building at UW-Madison
'68 Democratic Convention (Chicago)
Individuals from the counterculture met in Chicago in order to protest presidential ideologies. In total 24,000 officers were present—12,000 police, 6,000 national guard officers, and 6,000 federal troops. And 10,000 demonstrators were present.
Kent State (May 4, '70)
• Nixon announces Cambodian Incursion
• Weekend of May 1st
Burned ROTC building
National Guard called
• Monday noon - 2000 protesters
• Ohio National Guard
Fire 67 rounds in 13 seconds
4 dead, 9 wounded
• Youth who seek to flee society
Frustrated and alienated
Give up on trying to change society
Create their own subculture
• Motto "do you own thing"
• Communes, ling hair, jeans, sandals
• Casual sex - "make love, not war"
• Harvard Psychology Professor
• Fired for LSD experiments on students
• "tune in, turn on & drop out"
Summer of Love
• Peak of counterculture '67
• Haight-Ashbury (SF), Hollywood, Greenwich Village become centers
Thousands flock there
Live alternative lifestyle
August '69. Festival in'69 and half a million people attend. It was a disaster, but was a peaceful ordeal in which individuals united under common ideologies and their love of music.
• Leader of Spahn Ranch Commune
• Claimed Beatles were sending messages with lyrics
• Followers (Manson Family) commit horrific murders
Two sets of victims
Kill & mutilate
Attempt to start race war
• Shocks nation
Is the belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically, and socially
The National Organization for Women (NOW) was established by a group of feminists who were dedicated to actively challenging sex discrimination in society. With 500,000 members and 550 chapters in all 50 states, NOW is the largest organization of feminist activists in the United States.
Author of The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique
Was a novel written by Betty Friedan in which she confirmed that though women had what they wanted in life they still had a void. This work sparked the creation of the National Organization for Women (NOW). Friedan's work depicts the fact that society has created a world in which women can only be happy in the roles of housewives.
Component of educational amendment that prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls and young women in all aspects of operations. This extends from admissions to athletics.
A proposed amendment to the US Constitution stating that civil rights may not be denied on the basis of one's sex.
Status of Native American
The annual family income for a Native American was $1000 less than that of African Americas. The Native American unemployment rate was also 10 times the national rate. Most Native American suffered from discrimination and from limited education. There life expectancy was also 7 years below the national average. Of all minority sub group, the life of Native Americans was the worst.
Occupation of Alcatraz
In '69 made a symbolic protest by occupying the abandoned Alcatraz claiming ownership by right of discovery.
American Indian Movement. It was a militant group that believed that government efforts were too modest—employed combative lifestyle. In '69 made a symbolic protest by occupying the abandoned Alcatraz claiming ownership by right of discovery.
An activist who fought for the rights of farm workers. As farm workers at his time earned little play, received few benefits, and had no job security. Him and Dolores Huerta helped form the United Farm Workers. In 1966 helps begin grape boycott, which successfully leads to change in 1970.
United Farm Worker (UFW)
A labor union for farm workers in the United States that began with the aid of Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta.
La Raza Unida
Was a political party that called for job training programs and greater access to financial institutions. Was a political party in Texas that mobilized Mexican Americans and offered job training and financial aid.
April 1970 is held as the unofficial beginning of the environmental movement. That month the first Earth Day was held in efforts to address the planet's environmental issues. Thousands joined the movement and formed local organizations like the Audubon Society.
Three Mile Island
(March 28, 1979) (Carter) A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16-mile radius. This accident left many skeptical over the use of nuclear power plants.
His efforts to regulate automobiles helped Congress pass the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act. His efforts led to the regulation of many other consumer items
1968 as Turning Point
• Initially America's youth felt that they could change the war. This is the dream of a nobler America, which died as conservative ideology began to take control.
Robbed of hope
Loss of innocence
Ended liberal reform and the idea of a utopia
The Land of Milk and Honey
America is a land of plenty
Everyone can fulfill their dreams
Equal opportunity abounds
Land of affluence, abundance, wealth, comfort, rest, and leisure
Rags to Riches
Classless, egalitarian society
With hard work anyone can rise up from poverty
True capitalism where self-help, sobriety, courage, determination, and the Protestant work ethic are key to economic success.
Government by the People, for the People
America is based on a social contract between the government and the people
True democracy where power is derived from the people
Government therefore responds to the needs of the people
Role model for freedom, justice, and righteousness
Home Sweet Home
Based on Jefferson's concept that land ownership leads to:
Property ownership is backbone of the American fighting spirit
Rugged individuals protecting their property
The Melting Pot
Land shaped by immigrants but with one unique culture
Composite of the best of outside influences
Assimilate to form one American identity
Common ethos prevents social ills:
Moral responsibility and religious duty to spread the American values and way of life
Includes expanding borders
Implies racial, ideological, and cultural superiority
Assume others want to follow the American way of life
I Have a Dream
This is the dream within the dream
Includes everyone who has been marginalized, disenfranchised, and excluded.
America is the land of: