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Bob Jones Chapter 24 Vocab - Earth Science
Terms in this set (20)
A star's relative brightness as viewed from earth; assigned a number on the modern Hipparchus magnitude scale.
A star's brightness as it would appear at the standard distance from the star; allows computing a star's actual brightness to aid in seller classification.
The distance light travels in a year; a useful unit of interstellar distance, about 9.7 trillion km (6 trillion miles).
The apparent change in position of a distant object as one's viewing position changes; useful for determining the distances to relatively nearby to about 362 ly away from earth.
An immense star; mass can be up to 70 solar masses; size can be from 30 - 500 solar diameters or more; located at the top of the Hertzsprung Russell (H-R) diagram.
hertzsprung russell diagram
Graph used to classify stars based on their color / temperature class and their brightness or luminosity. Since luminosity is related to size and temperature, luminous stars tend to be hotter or larger, and dimmer stars tend to be smaller or cooler.
A region in Hertzsprung Russell (H-R) diagram containing most stars in the universe. The main sequence is long, narrow panel that stretches diagonally across the HR grain.
A large, luminous reddish star that forms when a star with about the mass of the sun enters its final stages of existence as its hydrogen fuel is used up.
A hot, dense core of a dead star. No nuclear fusion exist in a white dwarf, so there is no containing sources of heat. It slowly cools and eventually becomes a black dwarf.
The violent end of stars of greater than about 8 solar masses; a brilliant explosion that leaves behind a dead core such as a white dwarf neutron star or black hole. Very large stars are usually completely destroyed
A city sized, dense object that is so condensed that it is made of only neutrons, some spinning neutron stars produce beams of radio waves and are detected as pulsars.
A strange astronomical object so massive and dense that its intense gravity prevents even light from escaping it can result from the collapse of a super natural remnant.
An immense cloud of interstellar gas and dust. they may glow, reflect light or forms dark regions that are seen against a brighter background of stars.
one of a pair of gravitationally connected stars that revolve around each other. Astronomers believe that a majority of stars in our galaxy may be members of binary star systems.
A group of stars close enough to be held together by gravity. Stars in clusters have the same proper motion.
A huge, loose mass of billions of stars, other astronomical objects and dust held together by gravity. Galaxies exists as spiral barred spiral, elliptical or in irregular forms.
An usual celestial object that is as bright as a galaxy but is compact and looks like a distant star in a telescope. It stands for a quasi-stellar object.
A hot, dense collection of matter deep within a nebula that cosmologist believe they will eventually form a star when the nuclear begins.
In secular cosmology, the changes of a star over time starting with its birth and continuing its again in final death that takes place in millions or billions of years.
Invisible matter that secular cosmologist say most exist in the universe to create enough gravity to make more cosmology models work. Its existence is from the arrangement of stars and galaxies which or visible if it exist it should make up more than 88% of the matter in the universe.
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