46 terms

Next Step FL 1 Psych and Soc.

Missed 6-7 on this section due to second-guessing answer
Missed 2 from reading too fast
A mediating variable
A mediating variable is one which explains the relationship between two other variables
Moderating variable
moderator variable is one that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables, and a mediator variable is one that explains the relationship between the two other variables.
A confounding variable
A confounding variable is one which is not typically of interest to the researcher but is an extraneous variable which is related to BOTH the dependent and independent variables.
Cross's Nigrescence Model of African-American identity
In Cross's Nigrescence Model, African-Americans are described as progressing through several stages of cultural awareness. In the first stage, pre-encounter, African-Americans tend to view the majority Caucasian culture as being more desirable and would view a doctor of this race as being more skilled.

They would regard them with distrust and prefer to be treated by an African-American practitioner. This answer would be reflective of someone in the immersion-emersion stage of Cross's model. Someone in this stage would view the majority Caucasian culture with resentment and distrust and prefer to be treated by someone of his or her own race.
They would recognize historical injustices in medical care towards racial minorities and work to empower African-American patients to self-advocate. This answer would be representative of someone in the internalization stage, who has integrated aspects of his own culture with that of the majority culture and is working to rectify past racial injustices.
D: Cross posited that culture impacts identity and worldview.
The final stage of the identity transition, internalization-commitment involves reaching a balance of comfort in one's own racial/ethnic identity as well as the racial/ethnic identities of others. This stage makes the distinction between individuals who have internalized their new identity but discontinue their involvement in the movement for social change, and those that have internalizes their identity and continue to be agents of social change.
signs of opioid withdrawal
increased perspiration, tremors, increased anxiety.
Withdrawal from substances tends to produce the opposite effect of symptoms occurred while using the substances. Pupillary constriction is a physiological response to opioid use and thus would not be expected as a symptom during opioid withdrawal.
A drive-reduction and cognitive theorist would argue that depression is most strongly correlated with a deficiency in which component of fulfillment?
Drive-reduction theories suggest that depression stems from a reduction in the motivating forces of arousal. A cognitive theorist would argue that arousal is essential to sustaining most behaviors.
Abnormal functioning of which brain region(s) plays a role in the development of depression?
The frontal lobe is involved in humans' ability to project future consequences of current actions. Limbic system structures regulate emotion and memory, and the hypothalamus coordinates many hormones, some of which are involved in mood regulation. Therefore, abnormal functioning in any (or all) of the three could produce symptoms similar to depression.
Incidence describes the number of new cases of a disease (in this case, multiple sclerosis) during a specific time interval (a year).
Risk ratios
Risk ratios compare the risk of multiple sclerosis among one group with the risk among another group.
Prevalence rates
Prevalence rates describe how common multiple sclerosis is. More specifically, they tell us how many people (new cases and current cases) have multiple sclerosis within a certain amount of time.
Case control design
Case control designs compare information about individuals with a disease or condition against people without the disease or condition.
Social constructionism
Social constructionism asserts that people develop understandings and knowledge of the world through interactions with other people, and that the mediating force in this interaction is primarily language. Thus, under social constructionism ideas about gender are not inherent in the nature of reality itself, but are socially constructed and transmitted every day through countless language-based interactions between members of society. Choice D offers a good example of social constructionism in which a woman's behavior is shaped by her socially constructed sense of what it means to "be a good girl."
Ethnocentrism is a world view in which one's own culture and traditions are seen as inherently superior to those of other people. It is propagated from one generation to the next through a variety of cultural channels, the first and most important of which is the family. In choice C the father is encouraging an exclusionary behavior that is a classic negative component of ethnocentrism.
Attrition bias
Attrition bias occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study.
Selection bias
Selection bias refers to a type of bias related to how people are chosen to participate.
Reconstructive bias
Reconstructive bias is a type of bias related to memory. Most research on memories suggests that our memories of the past are not as accurate as we think, especially when we are remembering times of high stress.
eustress is a positive type of stress that happens when you perceive a situation as challenging, but motivating. Eustress is usually enjoyable!
Neustress happens when you are exposed to something stressful, but it doesn't actively or directly affect you. For example, news about a natural disaster on the other side of the world may be very stressful, but your body doesn't perceive that stress as good or bad for you so you aren't affected.
Distress is a negative type of stress that builds over time and is bad for your body. It happens when you perceive a situation to be threatening to you some way (physically or emotionally) and your body becomes primed to respond to the threat.
the student privately disagrees with the behavior but publicly conforms, which is known as compliance.
Informational social influence
Informational social influence refers to a situation where a medical student would conform by turning to others in their group for information about what is correct.
Internalization refers to a situation where the medical student would publicly and privately conform and accept the behavior
Identification refers to a situation where the medical student would conform to a behavior because they like or respect the person who exhibits it.
three core components of emotion
There are three core components of emotion - physiological arousal (how your body reacts to emotions, emotional information or stimuli), expressive displays (how you express your emotions), and subjective experiences (how you feel and interpret your emotions, which is extremely personal and subjective). Conditioned responses are not a core component of emotion.
hormones associated with social bonding and love
levels of hormones associated with social bonding and love (like β-endorphins and oxytocin)
The Schachter-Singer theory
The Schachter-Singer theory states that emotion processing has three distinct steps. First we experience physiological arousal, then we cognitively interpret the situation, and finally we experience the emotion. Julia pets her cat, which leads to physiological changes in her brain, thinks about her love for the cat, and feels an emotion- happiness.
Yerkes-Dodson law
Yerkes-Dodson law, which states that people tend to perform their best when they're moderately emotionally stimulated. Luke is moderately happy when running with his dog, which leads to optimal performance.
Produce the highest response rates, operant conditioning
Variable-ratio reinforcement schedules tend to produce the highest response rates that are the most resistant to extinction, which is exactly why casinos use them.
External validity
External validity refers to the generalizability of the research to settings beyond this study.
Criterion validity
Criterion validity refers to whether a variable is able to predict a certain outcome.
Randomization refers to that the sample of participants was selected so that everyone in the population had an equal chance of being selected.
construct validity
construct validity- how the terms are defined. Ex. The study purports to examine how social class influences perception of race. However, if the categories of "Black" and "White" are viewed by participants as being categories of social class rather than race, then they are not reflecting what the researchers intend to measure- participants' views of race.
Symbolic interactionism
Symbolic interactionism is the view that an individual's experiences influence his perceptions. Thus an individual's experience with race and class would influence how he perceives the images. VERSUS social constructionism where we compare participants' views of biology versus social constructs
Absolute mobility
Absolute mobility means that living standards are increasing in absolute terms: you are better off than your parents and your children will be better off than you. Absolute mobility compares your income to your parent's income. If your parents make $5,000 dollars a year and you make $10,000 dollars a year, you have experienced absolute mobility.
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
Prejudice is preconceived opinions or attitudes that are usually negative and not based on any facts or experience. Prejudice is an attitude and Discrimination is actually acting on that feeling. Stereotyping is a cognitive action, not a behavior.
Subjective bias
Self-reported information is always vulnerable to subjective bias. - decision making or evaluation based on personal, poorly measurable, and unverifiable data or feelings .
Motivation Types
1. The point of case-based team learning is to boost inner motivation to succeed and learn to be a good physician (also known as intrinsic motivation). In the passage, the students have to learn concepts on their own so that they are better able to think critically in class and contribute to their learning environment.

2. Extrinsic motivation is motivation to do something based on an external reward (like money or fame).
3. Drive-reduction motivation is motivation based on the need to fulfill a certain drive, like hunger or thirst. 4. Amotivation is the lack of motivation.
Through what form of social influence are new ideas most likely spread?
When a new idea arises, it is automatically a minority opinion. This idea can then be spread through the influence of the minority on others accepting this view.
approach-approach conflicts
In approach-approach conflicts two options are both appealing.
avoidant-avoidant conflicts
In avoidant-avoidant conflicts both options are unappealing
Double approach-avoidant conflicts
Double approach-avoidant conflicts consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics, which seemed to represent the jury's dilemma. If they ruled the defendant guilty, then they could be punishing a criminal(approach) or maybe punishing an innocent(avoidant). If they ruled the defendant innocent, then they would be letting a criminal walk away unpunished(avoidant) or freeing an innocent (approach).
An approach-avoidance conflict
An approach-avoidance conflict is when one option has both aspects
Asch's line experiment study of conformity
Solomon Asch (1951) conducted an experiment to investigate the extent to which social pressure from a majority group could affect a person to conform. Asch measured the number of times each participant conformed to the majority view. On average, about one third (32%) of the participants who were placed in this situation went along and conformed to the clearly incorrect majority. In Asch's study, the research confederates participants chose a line without providing any explanation to the group. Participants made decisions in groups in the study.
Cialdini's 6 principles of persuasion
Reciprocity: Obligation to repay.
Consistency and Commitment: Need for personal alignment.
Social Proof: The power of what others do.
Liking: The obligations of friendship.
Authority: We obey those in charge.
Scarcity: We want what may not be available.

While conveying scarcity, in general, can influence others, in the case of an opinion, the more people that agree, the more likely others are to follow, so scarcity is not desirable. This is reciprocity and influences others. Being likeable influences others. Obtaining verbal or written commitment increases influence.
What best describes the relationship between attribution theory and fundamental attribution error?
Attribution theory relates to an attempt by an individual to interpret actions by assigning causes to them; fundamental attribution error is when an individual interprets another's actions incorrectly by overemphasizing internal characteristics instead of external events.