Terms in this set (46)
the core of what coordinates, controls, and motivates employees to cooperate toward the attainment of organizational goals.
A chart that shows how a business is structured and who is in charge of whom
Division of Labor
reflects the degree to which employees specialize or perform a variety of tasks as generalists.
Span of Control
the number of people reporting directly to an individual
groups people with the same skills, or who use similar tools or work processes, together into departments.
a division is a collection of functions organized around a particular geographic area, product or service, or market. Divisional structures are common among organizations with many products or services, geographic areas, and customers.
when employees report to both a project or product team and to a functional manager, they are working in matrix structure. Employees represent their function in their work team, which allows the team to house all of the skills and expertise it needs to perform effectively and make good decisions.
one that contracts almost all of its functions exepct for the company name and managing the coordination among the contractors. A virtual organization may not even have a permanent office. Virtual organizations often use virtual teams linked by technology, although employees may still meet in person.
Social entitiy that is goal directed and deliberately structured/System of consciously coordinated activities of forces or two or more persons coordinating effort, aligning goals, dividing labor
Continually interacts with its environment/Depends on constant interaction with the environment of survival
Has little interaction with its environment/Self sufficient entity
Unity of command
Each employee accountable to one supervisor
Structures of accountability and responsibility used to develop and implement strategies (Traditional, Horizontal, Open)/The structures of accountability and responsibility used to develop and implement strategies, and the human resource practices and information and business processes that activate those structures.
Functional, divisional, matrix/Organizations defined by a traditional approach tend to have functional, divisional, and/or matrix structures. Each of these structures relies on a vertical hierarchy and attempts to define clear departmental boundaries and reporting relationships.
team and process oriented structure/design/Work hard to flatten the hierarchy, and to organize people around specific segments of the work flow, dissolve boundaries and work in teams.
Hollow, modular, virtual/Hollow, modular, or virtual structure, leverage technology, and flexibility, outsourcing and external collaboration.
Kotter's Eight Steps for Leading Organizational Change
1. Establish a sense of urgency
• Unfreeze the organization by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
2. Create the guiding coalition
• Create a cross-functional, cross-level group of people with enough power to lead change.
3. Develop vision and strategy
• Create a vision and strategic plan to guide the changes.
4. Communicate the change vision
• Create and implement a communication strategy that consistently communicates the new vision and strategic plan.
5. Empower the broad-based action
• Eliminate barriers to change and use target elements of change to transform the organization. Encourage risk and creative problem solving.
6. Generate short-term wins
• Plan for and create short-term wins or improvements. Recognize and reward people who contribute to the wins.
7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
• The guiding coalition uses credibility from short-term wins to create more change. Additional people are brought into the change process as change cascades throughout the organization. Attempts are made to reinvigorate the change process.
8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
• Reinforce the changes by highlighting connections between new behaviors and processes and organizational success. Develop methods to ensure leadership development and succession.
Teams or workgroups, either temporary or permanent, are created to improve collaboration and work on common projects.
external forces to change
globalization, workforce diversity, technological change, managing ethical behavior
External forces for change
Originate outside the organization. Such forces often apply to your organization and its competitors or even entire industries. External forces can dramatically affect why an organization exists, as well as which markets it participates in and how
Age, education, skill level, gender and immigration
Manufacturing automation and information technology
Shareholder, Customer, and Market Changes
Changing customer preferences, Domestic and international competition and Mergers and acquisitions
Social and Political Pressure
War, values, leadership
Internal forces for change
Come from inside the organization. Come from both human resource problems and managerial behavior and decisions
Human Resource Problems/Prospects
unmet needs, job dissatisfaction, absenteeism and turnover, productivity, and participation/suggestions
Conflict, leadership, reward systems, structural reorganization. Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates or the board of directors is a sign that change is needed
the least complex, costly, and uncertain. It involves reimplementation of a change in the same organizational unit at a later time or imitation of a similar change by a different unit. Not particularly threatening to employees because they are familiar
falls midway on the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty. More complex because organizations needs to learn new behaviors, as well as create, implement, and enforce new policies and practices. Potential for resistance to change
Radically innovative change
At the high end of the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty. Changes of this sort are the most difficult to implement and tend to be the most threatening to managerial confidence and employee job security. But they realize the greatest benefits. Must be supported by an organization's culture
Lewin's Change Model
Three stage model of planned change that explains how to initiate, manage, and stabilize a change process. The three stages are unfreezing, changing and refreezing
Create the motivation to change. Individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with new ones. The initial challenge is creating and communicating a convincing reason to change
New information, models and procedures. Organizational change can be aimed at improvement or growth, or it can focus on solving a problem such as poor customer service or low productivity. Change must be targeted at some desired end result
Support and reinforce the change. Change is supported by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. Once this happens, positive reinforcement is used to encourage the desired change. More specifically, early in the change process it is especially helpful to use continuous reinforcement with extrinsic rewards. This helps establish clear links between the desired new behaviors and the reinforcing reward or recognition.
The OD Process
1. Diagnosis: What is the problem and causes?
2. Intervention: What can be done to solve the problem?
3. Evaluation: is the intervention working?
4. Feedback: What does the evaluation suggest about the diagnosis and the effectiveness of how the intervention was implemented?
An adaptive response to environmental demands, referred to as stressors, that produce adaptive responses that include physical, emotional and behavioral reactions that are influenced by individual differences
stress associated with positive emotions and outcomes
Factors that produce stress
Individual level, group level, organizational level, extra-organizational
Six strategies for overcoming resistance to change
1. Education and communication
2. Participation and involvement
3. Facilitation and support
4. Negotiation and agreement
5. Manipulation and co-optation- other tactics will not work or are too expensive
6. Explicit and implicit coercion-speed is essential and the initiators of change possess considerable power
If employees are more resistant to change, managers should...
Provide info about the change
Inform employees about the reasons/rationale for the change
Conduct meetings to address questions regarding the change
Provide employees opportunities to discuss how the proposed change might affect them
what is the problem?
what shall we do about it?
how well has intervention helped?
how can diagnosis be further refined?
Effectiveness of OD
1. Multiple interventions - success stories have multiple interventions
2. Management support
3. Short and long term result geared goals
4. OD is affected by culture