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31 terms

BJU space & earth

BJU 8th Grade Space & Earth Chapter 4 The Sun
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Milky Way
The galaxy that contains our solar system; visible as a broad band of stars across the night sky
electromagnetic waves
A form of energy that can be transmitted through a vacuum. Its spectrum contains radio waves, infrared waves, visible light waves, ultra-violet waves, x-rays, and gamma rays
neutrino
An electronically neutral, subatomic, nearly massless, particle emitted by the fusion reaction within the sun that travels at nearly the speed of light
wavelength
The horizontal distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum
spectroscope
An instrument used to identify the elements in an incandesent substance by separating and measuring the component wavelenghts
spectrum
A distribution of electromagnetic energies arranged in order of wavelengths
diffraction grating
a device made of thousands of closely spaced slits through which light is passed in order to produce a spectrum
plasma
a fourth state of matter that forms at extremely high temperatures and is distinct from solid or liquid or gas. It is present in stars and fusion reactors. Its particles are partially or completely ionized.
ionize
To add or remove an electron from a particle to create an ion
photosphere
the visible surface of the sun
granule
One of innumerable bumps in the sun's photosphere thought to result from convection currents bringing up hot plasma from beneath the sun's surface
sunspot
a relatively small, cooler darker area appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere believed to be associated with irregularities in the sun's magnetic field
limb
the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of a planet, the sun or the moon
umbra
the darker inner portion of a sunspot
penumbra
the lighter outer temperature region of a sunspot
solar flare
Violent eruption on the surface of the sun resulting in intense emissions of ultra-violet radiation, x-rays, and solar matter Larger solar flares (coronal mass ejections) create geomagnetic storms on earth.
radiation
the penetrating rays and particles (heat or light) emitted by a radioactive source
chromosphere
layer of gases that form the innermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere
corona
the extremely hot, outermost region of the sun's atmosphere that becomes the solar wind
coronagraph
An instrument used to observe the corona of the sun by creating an artificial eclipse
spicule
A pointed jet of gases from the top of the sun's chromosphere extending into the corona
facula
a large bright spot on the sun's photosphere, usually near one or more sunspots
solar wind
High-speed particles from the sun's corona mostly protons and electrons traveling outward in all directions into intersteller space
prominence
An immense disturbance in the corona of the sun that may appear as a loop, a feathery structure or an irregular mass rising from and falling back into the sun
core
The central region of the interior of a celestial object where thermonuclear fusion takes place
radiative zone
The middle zone of the model of the sun's interior where thermal energy moves outward from the core by radiation
photon
tiny particle or 'packet' of energy - has 0 mass and no electric charge
pressure
the total amount of force exerted over a standard area
convective zone
In the model of the sun's interior, it is the outermost region, composed of extremely hot plasmas, where heat transfer from the radiative zone to the surface occurs by convection
solar energy
energy that comes from the light/heat of the sun
photovoltaic cell
A device that changes radiant energy (especially light) into an electric voltage