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BJU 8th Grade Space & Earth Chapter 4 The Sun

Milky Way

The galaxy that contains our solar system; visible as a broad band of stars across the night sky

electromagnetic waves

A form of energy that can be transmitted through a vacuum. Its spectrum contains radio waves, infrared waves, visible light waves, ultra-violet waves, x-rays, and gamma rays


An electronically neutral, subatomic, nearly massless, particle emitted by the fusion reaction within the sun that travels at nearly the speed of light


The horizontal distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum


An instrument used to identify the elements in an incandesent substance by separating and measuring the component wavelenghts


A distribution of electromagnetic energies arranged in order of wavelengths

diffraction grating

a device made of thousands of closely spaced slits through which light is passed in order to produce a spectrum


a fourth state of matter that forms at extremely high temperatures and is distinct from solid or liquid or gas. It is present in stars and fusion reactors. Its particles are partially or completely ionized.


To add or remove an electron from a particle to create an ion


the visible surface of the sun


One of innumerable bumps in the sun's photosphere thought to result from convection currents bringing up hot plasma from beneath the sun's surface


a relatively small, cooler darker area appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere believed to be associated with irregularities in the sun's magnetic field


the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of a planet, the sun or the moon


the darker inner portion of a sunspot


the lighter outer temperature region of a sunspot

solar flare

Violent eruption on the surface of the sun resulting in intense emissions of ultra-violet radiation, x-rays, and solar matter Larger solar flares (coronal mass ejections) create geomagnetic storms on earth.


the penetrating rays and particles (heat or light) emitted by a radioactive source


layer of gases that form the innermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere


the extremely hot, outermost region of the sun's atmosphere that becomes the solar wind


An instrument used to observe the corona of the sun by creating an artificial eclipse


A pointed jet of gases from the top of the sun's chromosphere extending into the corona


a large bright spot on the sun's photosphere, usually near one or more sunspots

solar wind

High-speed particles from the sun's corona mostly protons and electrons traveling outward in all directions into intersteller space


An immense disturbance in the corona of the sun that may appear as a loop, a feathery structure or an irregular mass rising from and falling back into the sun


The central region of the interior of a celestial object where thermonuclear fusion takes place

radiative zone

The middle zone of the model of the sun's interior where thermal energy moves outward from the core by radiation


tiny particle or 'packet' of energy - has 0 mass and no electric charge


the total amount of force exerted over a standard area

convective zone

In the model of the sun's interior, it is the outermost region, composed of extremely hot plasmas, where heat transfer from the radiative zone to the surface occurs by convection

solar energy

energy that comes from the light/heat of the sun

photovoltaic cell

A device that changes radiant energy (especially light) into an electric voltage

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