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8A: Individuals and Society
Terms in this set (57)
_______ is how someone perceives/evaluates themselves, aka self-awareness.
______ is most basic part of self-concept, the sense of being separate and distinct from others. Awareness that the self is constant throughout life.
______ comes once baby realizes they're separate - becoming aware that even though we're separate, we also exist in the world with others. And each of those entities
have properties. Ex. age and gender are first babies learn, then skills and size. Then compare ourselves with others - traits, comparisons, careers.
What is self image?
what we believe we are
What is self-esteem?
how much value we place on ourselves
What is ideal-self?
what we aspire to be
When the ideal self and real self are similar, the result is a ________. When the ideal self does not match the real self, the result is _______.
positive self-concept, incongruity
______ is a person's sense of who they are based on their group membership(s).
social identity theory
What are the three parts to social identity theory?
categorize ourselves, identify with a group, and social comparison
_____ is the belief in one's abilities to succeed in a particular situation. Developed by Bandora due to his dissatisfaction with idea of self-esteem.
People with ___ self-efficacy recover quickly from setbacks, have strong interest, strong sense of commitment, and enjoy challenging tasks (RISE)
People with ____ self-efficacy focus on personal failures, avoid challenging tasks, quickly lose confidence in personal abilities, and believe they lack the ability to handle difficult tasks and situations (FALL)
What sources are looked at to determine if a person has strong/weak self-efficacy?
Mastery of experience, social modeling, social persuasion, psychological responses
_____ is the extent to which people perceive they have control over events in their lives.
Locus of control
What is internal locus of control?
when person believes he or she can influence events/outcomes. Results come primarily from their own actions.
What is external locus of control?
attribute events to environmental events/causes.
Believed early childhood was the most important age/period it developed. Plays large role in personality development.
Freuds psychosexual theory of development
Proposed personality/identity development occurs through one's entire lifespan. Each stage depends on overcoming a conflict, and success/failure at each stage affects overall functioning of theory.
Erikson's Psychosocial development theory.
Believed children learned actively through hands-on processes, and suggest parents/cultural beliefs/language/attitudes are all responsible for higher function of learning.
Vygotsky's sociocultural development theory
Focussed on moral reasoning and difference between right and wrong.
Kohlberg's moral development theory
In general, Freud and Erikson were interested in how _____ develops, and Vygotsky and Kohlberg were interested in how _____ develops
According to Freud, _____ is a a natural energy source that fuels mechanisms of mind.
What are the stages of Freud's development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
(OLD AGE PARROTS LOVE GRAPES)
When does the oral stage occur and what is it characterized by?
0-1 years. libido is centered around baby's mouth, vital for sucking/eating. Trust/comfort developed because of dependency on caretakers
When does the anal stage occur and what is it characterized by?
1-2 years. centered around anus, ex. toilet training. Leads to developing control/independence, encouraging positive outcomes.
When does the phallic stage occur and what is it characterized by?
age 3-6, children discover difference between males and females. Oedipus complex also develops. Resoled through process of identification, where child starts to understand and develop similar characteristics as same-sex parent.
When does the latent stage occur and what is it characterized by?
6-12 years. no focus of libido. A period of exploration, libido present but directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions.
When does the genital stage occur and what is it characterized by?
12+ years. back on libido, because individual develops strong sexual interests. Before this stage, focus on individual needs.
What is a key difference between Erikson and Freuds theories of development?
Erikson suggested there was plenty of room for growth throughout one's life (not just childhood).
Assumed a crisis can occur at each stage of development, between needs of individual and society. Successful of 8 stages results in acquisition of basic virtues and healthy personality.
Erikson's Psychosocial development theory
1 yrs., crisis is trust vs. mistrust. If an infant's physical and emotional needs are not met, as an adult he or she may mistrust everyone. Virtue is hope, and failing to acquire of virtue can lead to suspicion/fear/mistrust.
Stage 1 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
2 yrs., autonomy vs. shame/doubt. Around 18 months to 3 yrs. children develop independence by walking away from mother, what they eat, etc. Critical that parents allow
children to do that. If child is overly criticized/controlled,
feel inadequate and lack self-esteem, and have shame.
Stage 2 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
3-5 yrs., initiative vs. guilt. Children feel more secure in their ability to lead others and play, so ask questions. Virtue they reach is a sense of purpose in what they do and choices/decisions they make. If tendency to ask questions is controlled, its devleoped as guilt that they're annoying people. Inhibits creativity and outcome is inadequacy.
Stage 3 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
age 6-12. Where teachers take an important role in a child's life, and child works towards competence. Crisis is industry vs. inferiority. Child will gain greater significance and self-esteem, and try to win approval from others. Will feel industrious, but if initiative is restricted child feels inferior. Some is good though, so child has modesty.
Stage 4 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
age 12-18, adolescence. Transition from childhood to adulthood, so one of most important crisis. Want to start feeling they belong in society - identity vs. role confusion. In this stage, the child has to learn rules, so may re-examine identity to figure out who they are. Body image plays big role. Virtue is fidelity, seeing oneself as unique. Can cause rebellion/unhappiness.
Stage 5 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
Age 18-40. intimacy vs. isolation. Try to find love and relationships. Completion leads to comfortable relationships, avoiding intimacy can lead to isolation/loneliness.
Stage 6 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
age 40-65, so settle down, make families the center of their lives, and sense of being part of bigger picture. Generativity vs. stagnation. Adults feel like they give back through raising
children/work/community activities, so develop sense of care for others. Negative outcome is they feel stagnate and unproductive.
Stage 7 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
65+, slowing in productivity. Crisis is integrity vs. despair. Contemplate on lives, reminisce. May feel guilt about past or unaccomplished, dissatisfied. Virtue is wisdom, but if we
feel unproductive leads to despair/dissatisfaction upon death.
Stage 8 (Erikson's Psychosocial development theory)
What did Vygotsky study?
the role social interaction plays in development of cognition
What are the 4 elementary functions Vygotsky stated babies had?
attention, sensation, perception, memory
Development of higher mental functions from elementary functions involves:
1. cooperative and collaborative dialogue from MKO (more knowledgable other)
2. Zone of proximal development - where most sensitive instruction/guidance should be given
3. language - main means by which adults transmit info to children.
based on cognitive development similar to Vygotsy. Looked at how people developed their morals, and the way moral reasoning changes as people grow.
Kohlberg's moral development theory
1. Obedience vs. Punishment - reasoning is based on physical consequences of actions, so obeying the rules is a means to avoid punishment.
2. Individualism and Exchange - recognize not just one right view by authorities, different individuals have different viewpoints.
Pre-conventional (pre-adolescent) (Kohlberg)
3. Good Boy and Good Girl - Authority is internalized, but not questioned, and reasoning is based on group person belongs. Individual is good in order to be seen as good by others, emphasis on conformity.
4. Law and Order - maintaining social order, child is aware of wider roles of society and obeying laws.
5. Social Contract - Individual becomes aware that even though rules and laws exist for greater good, there are times this law works against interest of particular people. Ex. for Heinz, is protection of life more important than breaking/stealing? People at this stage said yes.
6. Universal Ethical Principle - people develop own set of moral guidelines, which may or may not fit the law, and principles apply to everyone. People who uphold and believe in these have to be prepared to act towards these even if they have to obey consequences. Very few people who reach this stage, ex. Ghandi.
Post-conventional (moral) (kohlberg)
a type of individual social influence, one of most basic forms of social behavior. Begins with understanding there's difference between others and self.
Evidence suggests we have ________, when one fires another fires when we observe same action performed by other person.
define what we do and who we are.
the group to which people refer in evaluating themselves.
important contributions of society to our personal development, the people and culture in which we live.
Culture and socializationq
Mead developed the idea of?
What is social behaviorism?
the mind and self-emerge through the process of communicating with others (beginning of symbolic interactionism)
As we grow up, how others perceive us is more important, 3 stages of social behaviorism:
Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage
Which stage of social behaviorism led to the development of the I and me?
how the individual believes the generalized other perceives it, the social self, and the "I" is our response to the "me".
the response of the individual to the "me" aka attitudes of others.
idea that a person's sense of self develops from interpersonal interactions with others.
looking glass self
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
6A: Sensing the environment (P/S)
6B: Making sense of the environment
6C: Responding to the world
7A: Individual influences on behavior
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