Cuisine, Wine and Culture

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seeds and stems by weight5% by weight3 categories of winetable, sparkling, fortifiedfortified winetable wine as base with addition of alcohol (distilled spirit)phylloxerabeetles that destroyed grape vinesterroirthe environmental conditions, especially soil and climate in which grapes are grown and give a wine its unique flavor and aromacool/warm climateless pigment, low in sugar, high in acid, less consistent ripeness, lower alcoholwarm/hot climateriper grapes, lower acidity, higher alcoholold worldwinemaking within European countries of France, Italy, Germany and Spain; focused on terroirnew worldwinemaking countries of America, Australia, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and New Zealand-not bound by tradition, use different techniques3 types of bottlesBordeaux bottle, Burgundy Bottle, and Alsace/Mosel BottleBurgundy bottlePinot and chardonnay bottled in this type, most light red wines stored in this bottlebordeaux bottlecabernet sauvignon and merlot, bottle has shoulders created in order to catch sedimentAlsace/Mosel bottlestores riesling, more delicate bottle, mainly transported on shipssparkling bottlethick glass with sloping shoulders and long neck, designed to withstand high pressures exerted by carbonation, also a large indentation in bottom of bottlefortified bottleused for port, madeira and sherry, tall shoulders and large bulge in neck to help capture sediment, cork stopper rather than traditional larger corkstwo main factors that can affect a wine and spoil ittemperature and storing positiontemperature to store winecool, dry place no more than 70 degreesstore wine on itsside, because if liquid isn't in constant contact with cork the seal loosens and more oxygen seeps invarietal labeled winesderived from their predominant grape varietal, most new world (non-European) wine labelsgeographically labeled wineswines that are labeled and produced from strictly regulated areas of the wine growing country, most old world (european) wine labelswhoproducer (winery or estate)whatgrape varietalwheregeographic location (where grapes were grown/wine produced)whenvintage year (year grapes were picked and wine made)howlevel of quality or other classificationhow can you assess quality of wineby tastingviticulturethe way grapes are grownvinificationgrapes must be made into wine as soon after they've been picked as possible because contact with air causes oxidization, which spoils their flavoreco-conscious trendyounger generations more environmentally consciousWhat state accounts for 70% of total US wine consumed?Californiaare American's choosing red or white wine in restaurants more than 61% of the timeredgrower of wineviticuluristenologistwine specialistgrape growing area characterized by its geography or geology and terriorvineyarda viticulture area distinguished by geographical features that produce wines with shared characteristicsappellationage of grape vines, how they have been raised, the pruning and manicuring of vines and soil consumptionpersonality of winein Northern hemisphere grapes are normally harvested in thelate summer or early fallin southern hemisphere harvest6 months behind northern hemisphere/late winter, early springgrapevines become _______ in the winterdormantwhen vines emerge from dormancy (March/April)budbreakwhen buds begin to bloomfloweringwhen flowers form into green hard berriesfruit setremoving excessive grapes and foliage from the grapevine for the purpose of affecting yieldsummer pruningwhen green berries begin to change color and become recognizable grapesveraisonWhite wines from _________ have aromas and flavors associated with tree fruits such as apples and pearscool climatesWhite wines from warm climates have aromas and flavors associated with warm climate tree and _______ fruitstropical____________ from cool climates promote fresh fruits such as cranberry and red cherriesred winesRed wines from _____________ encourage dried and stewed fruits such as figs, plums, and dried cherrieswarm climatesin warm climates grapes have _______ sugar levels and _____ acid levelshigh/lowin cooler climates grapes contain _______ acid levels and _____ sugar levelshigher/lower4 climatesmaritime, continental, mediterranean, alpinewhat kind of soils force the vine to struggle for its nutrients yielding good concentration of flavor characteristics in the grapeswell-drained infertile soilshow red wine is made1. Harvest 2. Crush 3. Add yeast 4. Ferment 5. Filter out skins and other solids 6. Barrel Age 7. Bottle 8. Shiphow white wine is made1. Harvest 2. Crush 3. Separate skins from juice 4. Add yeast to juice 5. Ferment 6. Bottle or barrel age or make sparkling wine 7. Shipwhen winemakers add acid during fermentation to make up for a lack of it during growing seasonacidificationwhen winemakers add sugar during fermentation to make up for a lack of it during growing seasonchaptalizationThe result is a reduction of tartness and added buttery aromas and flavors, along with added texturemalolactic fermentationoxidative agingaging in woodreductive agingaging in stainless steelstainless steel used primarily forwhite wineswood used primarily forred winesThis system is the sensory system used for the sense of smellolfactorythis is the sensory system for the sense of tastegustatoryaromas that are grape-derivative and include fruits, herbs, and floral notes.primary aromasaromas that come from winemaking practices. The most common aromas are yeast-derivative and are most easy to spot in white wines: cheese rind, nut husk (almond, peanut), or stale beer.secondary aromasaromas that come from aging, usually in bottle, or possibly in oak. These aromas are mostly savory: roasted nuts, baking spices, vanilla, autumn leaves, old tobacco, cured leather, cedar, and even coconut.tertiary aromastwo major fruit types in white winecitrus and tree fruitsprocess of sensory analysislook, smell, taste, concludetrue or false: the more wine ages, the more color it losestruewhen your mouth waters, the wine isacidicwhen your mouth is dry, the wine has a lot oftanninthe big 6sauvignon blanc, riesling, chardonnay, merlot, pinot noir, cabernet sauvignonfruit flavors in red wine fall into two categoriesred and black fruitwines with ______ fruit flavors tend to be more full bodiedblack