40 terms

Chapter 17 - AP Environmental Science (Friedland)

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Terms in this set (...)

Disease
Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms.
Infectious disease
A disease caused by a pathogen.
Acute disease
A disease that rapidly impairs the functioning of an organism.
Chronic disease
A disease that slowly impairs the functioning of an organism.
Epidemic
A situation in which a pathogen causes a rapid increase in a disease.
Pandemic
An epidemic that occurs over a large geographic region.
Plague
An infectious disease caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that is carried by fleas.
Malaria
An infectious disease caused by one of several species of protists in the genus Plasmodium.
Tuberculosis
A highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily infects the lungs.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
A type of virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
Ebola hemorrhagic fever
An infectious disease with high death rates, caused by the Ebola virus.
Mad cow disease
A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage a cow's nervous system.
Swine flu
A type of flu caused by the H1N1 virus.
Bird flu
A type of flu caused by the H5N1 virus.
West Nile virus
A virus that lives in hundreds of species of birds and is transmitted among birds by mosquitoes.
Neurotoxin
A chemical that disrupts the nervous system of animals.
Carcinogen
A chemical that causes cancer.
Mutagen
A type of carcinogen that causes damage to the genetic material of a cell.
Teratogen
A chemical that interferes with the normal development of embryos or fetuses.
Allergen
A chemical that causes allergic reactions.
Endocrine disruptor
A chemical that interferes with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body.
Dose-response study
A study that exposes organisms to different amounts of a chemical and then observes a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Acute study
An experiment that exposes organisms to an environmental hazard for a short duration.
Chronic study
An experiment that exposes organisms to an environmental hazard for a long duration.
LD50
The lethal dose of a chemical that kills 50 percent of the individuals in a dose-response-study.
ED50
The effective dose of a chemical that causes 50 percent of the individuals in a does-response study to display a harmful, but nonlethal, effect.
Retrospective study
A study that monitors people who have been exposed to an environmental hazard at some time in the past.
Prospective study
A study that monitors people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Synergistic interaction
A situation in which two risks together cause more harm than expected based on the separate effects of each risk alone.
Route of exposure
The way in which an individual might come into contact with an environmental hazard.
Solubility
How well a chemical dissolves in a liquid.
Bioaccumulation
An increased concentration of a chemical within an organism over time.
Biomagnification
The increase in chemical concentration in animal tissue as the chemical moves up the food chain.
Persistence
The length of time a chemical remains in the environment.
Environmental hazard
Anything in the environment that can potentially cause harm.
Innocent-until-proven-guilty principle
A principle based on the belief that a potential hazard should not be considered an actual hazard until scientific data definitively demonstrates that it actually causes harm.
Precautionary principle
A principle based on the belief that action should be taken against a plausible environmental hazard.
Stockholm Convention
A 2001 agreement among 127 nations concerning 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced.
REACH
A 2007 agreement among the nations of the European Union about regulation of chemicals; the acronym stands for registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals.

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