GOVT-105 - Individual Freedom vs. Authority - Final Exam Spring 2018
Terms in this set (49)
A Theory of Justice - Author | Date
John Rawls | 1971
veil of ignorance - Definition | Author
Personal elements that bias your sense of justice; the barrier that must be crossed to get back to the original position | Rawls
(New) 2 principles of justice - Definition | Author
1) Equal rights for each compatible with the same rights for others
2) Social and economic inequalities should be:
++++ a) for the benefit of the least advantaged, and
++++ b) attached to offices and positions open to all under fair equality of opportunity | Rawls
System of Natural Liberty - Definition | Author
A system in which government doesn't pick winners and losers; was the original U.S. status quo; has police, courts, etc.; classical liberal ideology; pure system of efficiency/Pareto optimality; rule of law - equal application of the rules without regard for people's starting points | Rawls
System of Liberal Equality - Definition | Author
A system of government that supports public schools; managing the economy (to prevent excessive accumulation of property/wealth); "Fair equality of opportunity"; and is still based on natural talent. Problems: 1) The natural lottery, 2) Upbringing discrepancies. Still has the rule of law, but improves upon the System of Natural Liberty | Rawls
System of Natural Aristocracy - Definition | Author
A system of government that has little regulation, but those in power are obliged to those not; there is an unequal distribution of power in society, but this arises naturally from merit, work, and competition | Rawls
System of Democratic Equality - Definition | Author
• "A rendering of [governments] which treats everyone equally as a moral person, and which does not weight men's share in the benefits and burdens of social cooperation according to their social fortune or their luck in the natural lottery."
• Best case scenario: Expectations of those worst off are maximized
• Good scenario: High expectations of those best off contribute to the welfare of those worst off / lowering high-class expectations hurt those worst off
• Worst case scenario: Excessive expectations of the top class = lowest class benefit by lowered expectations of the top class | Rawls
4 (5) Branches of Government as According to Rawls
1) Allocation - preserve market competition (Federal Trade Commission, Anti-Trust Laws)
++++ a) "prevent the formation of unreasonable market power"
++++ b) "keep the price system workably competitive"
2) Stabilization - ensure full employment (Federal Reserve)
3) Transfer - maintain the social minimum (Universal Basic Income)
4) Distribution - "preserve an approximate justice in distributive shares by means of taxation and the necessary adjustments in the rights of property"
++++ a) Inheritance taxes - "It must be arranged so as to bring about in its members the corresponding sense of justice"
++++ b) Revenue - "A scheme of taxation to raise the revenues that justice requires"
5) Exchange - Other public spending (can be negotiated by a legislature)
The Definition of Free Society as According to Nozick
"In a free society, diverse persons control different resources, and new holdings arise out of the voluntary exchanges and actions of persons."
Noble Lie - Plato
- All citizens born from the earth (Basically like US saying "all men are created equal")
- Three part hierarchal metal system
Hierarchy of classes - Plato
Healthy city (city of pigs)
- Pigs happy living in the mud
- No competition
- Division of labor
- Humans have to want to dominate other things
- Meat eating
- Need soldiers for land conquering
What does Polemarchus' name mean?
Polemarchus' definition of justice
- Help your friends
- Harm your enemies
- Your friends aren't necessarily just, your enemies aren't necessarily unjust
What is the Ring of Gyges?
- Makes folks invisible
- What urges would you act on if you were invisible
- Sleeps with the Queen
- Kills the King
Who is the only person happy under Plato's idea of justice?
A philosopher. Even if society is garbage you can still get your soul in order and be happy.
Pile of clothes
Signifies casting off of English culture of inequality
Symbolizes British being dicks and unequal
South African man returning to his people
Keeps sword and necklace to remember them by
Shows hierarchy of their culture. Supposed to be the adopted father.
Plato's Three Waves
- Equality of men and women
- Abolition of the family
- Philosopher kings
Why abolish the family?
Children should be raised by people who can determine where they fit in society (kind of like a guidance counselor).
Parents cannot be objective especially about if their children should go down a metal class.
Who are the philosopher kings?
The idea of good
No one can answer what the idea of good is because we are all part of an unjust society. Plato deflects and says "maybe a child" would know its meaning
- Head of household, father
- Leaves quickly after counter argument from Socrates, shows how elders are less open to new ideas/opinions
- Justice is paying your debts, telling the truth, and following the rules
- Pays mind to the gods and values things "sacred"
Anarchy, State, and Utopia - Author | Date
Nozick | 1974
2 theories of justice as according to Nozick
Historical: As long as you've played by the rules of the game, what you have is justly yours and no one can question it.
"That a conclusion could have been deduced by truth-preserving means from premises that are true suffices to show its truth. That from a just situation a situation could have arisen via justice preserving means does not suffice to show its justice."
Patterned/time-slice/end result: Everyone's grading on a curve, looks at what's just
"No end-state principle or distribution patterned principle of justice can be continuously realized without continuous interference with people's lives."
CAPITALISM = FREE WILL
Nozick's entitlement theory of justice (3 parts)
1. Principle of justice in acquisition
2. Principle of justice in transfer - via voluntary exchange
3. Principle of rectification of injustice - how to deal with holdings that are or have been unjustly acquired/transferred; no one is entitled to a holding except by repeated applications of 1 and 2
- Not part of the family, a visitor - Sophist or rhetorician (speech writer who can argue for any side)
- Justice is the advantage of the stronger people only act for self benefit so there really is no justice.
- "Most successful person" = tyrant who can do whatever they want
- He is the troll "there is no justice"
Plato quote about just society
Unless the philosophers rule as kinds or those who now called kings and chiefs genuinely and adequately philosophize and political power and philosophy coincide in the same play there is no rest from ills for the cities my dear Glaucon nor I think for human kind. Nor will the regime we have described in speech ever come forth from nature.
Plato quote about heaven
But in heaven, perhaps, a pattern is laid up for the man who wants to see and found a city within himself on the basis of what he sees. It doesn't make any difference whether it is or will be somewhere. For he would mind the things of this city alone, and of no other.
Letter Concerning Toleration
Government shouldn't pick sides during religious wars
How does Locke say we know if government is doing its job?
Know government is doing well if we're better off than our parents
Why was Locke kinda radical/feminist?
Believed that women can consent/revoke consent to marriage
Legitimate government is what according to Locke?
With consent of the governed, agreeing to be part of the community
Why is voting consenting to the government?
If you vote for someone and they lose you're saying even if they lose, you consent to the entire system because your voice was heard
Three Defects of State of Nature
1. No established, settled, law
2. No known, impartial, judge
3. In the state of nature, power and right are not on the same side/aligned
What should the limits on legislative power be, according to Locke?
- No absolute, arbitrary power
- Government should be limited
- Can't do whatever the hell it wants
- Needs to be for the sake of the common good
- Standing laws, known judges
- Laws have to be publicly known and standing, not by whim
- Speed limit signs etc.
- Cannot take any part of a man's property without his consent
- No taxation without consent (representation)
Three branches according to Locke
- Enforce the laws
- Foreign policy
- Interacting with other countries
Locke quote about day laborers
"There cannot be a clearer demonstration of any thing, than several nations of the Americans are of this, who are rich in land, and poor in all the comforts of life; whom nature having furnished as liberally as any other people, with the materials of plenty, i.e. a fruitful soil, apt to produce in abundance, what might serve for food, raiment, and delight; yet for want of improving it by labour, have not one hundredth part of the conveniencies we enjoy: and a king of a large and fruitful territory there, feeds, lodges, and is clad worse than a day-labourer in England."
What does the day laborer quote mean?
A day laborer in England is better off than a King in the Americas.
Locke thinks day laborer in England are better off because...
- If you spend your time defining yourself by the people on the top of your society, you're never going to be happy
- Even poor people today live longer than years ago
- You're a lot likely to have a stable life if you're happy
Right of Rebellion
The right or duty, variously stated throughout history, of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests.
Safeguard against tyranny.
amour de soi-meme
Rousseau's idea of self-love that does not depend on comparison to others. Only existed for Nature Boy.
Rousseau's idea of egotism, or esteem that depends upon the opinion of/comparison to others.
0. Nature Boy - amour de soi-meme, basically an animal
1. Hut Society - "middle school dance society," first consciousness, gendered division of labor, amour-propre
2. Agriculture and Metallurgy - stored food creates political power magnifies inequalities from hut society, introduction of language, war of haves vs. have-nots
3. Government - ideally, total alienation of each to all (i.e. the Social Compact); non-ideally, technology devours all and society becomes irreparably unequal
Locke Treatises' publication:
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, The Social Compact, Geneva Letter - Author | Date
Rousseau | 1754