Unit 14 Complete /14.8
Terms in this set (88)
the total population change in the Uk in 2015 was ...
what proportion of the UK's population live in urban areas?
the central lowlands of Scotland, north east England, Lancashire, West Yorkshire and south wales were all developed because they are near...
raw material deposits of things like coal and iron ore
Birmingham is developed because it is located
In the center of England
there has been general population shift (in the UK) towards...
between 2009 and 2014 the average annual population increase of the UK has been ...
There has recently been a population movement from urban to rural in the UK, this is due to...
the elderly choosing to retire on the coast/in the countryside
The area in the UK with the lowest population density is...
The Scottish highlands
The area in the UK with the highest population density (outside London) is...
London is considered a primary node in the global economic network. This makes it a...
How has Bristols Industry changed?
Traditionally a port. Cingarettes and sherry made. Closing of port = empty warehouses.
What were the empty warehouses used for?
Some were made into flats, some reused for new industry
Which employment sectors have had the most development?
Tertiary and Quaternary
Why have high-tech industries in Bristol developed?
Major change = more people employed by high tech companies.
50 micro-electronic and silicon design businesses in Bristol - largest concentration after Silicon Valley!
What factors attract high-tech businesses to Bristol?
• Government grant of £100 million to become a Super-Connected City with high download speeds
•educated and skilled workforce
•close links between city council + the uni
•advanced research at the uni
•diff industries working in collaboration
Set up in 1972
Well known studio, clay films
Computer animation market
Won many awards, inc. Oscar
Defense Procurement Agency
Employs over 10,000 people, established on a GREENFIELD SITE in 1996.
More employments by DPA = more urban sprawl
Bradley Stoke, (pop= 21000) Europes largest private housing development when building of DPA commenced in the late 1980's.
14/15 main global aircraft companies found in Bristol (Rolls-Royce, Airbus, GKN Aerospace)
Developments like Fulton Enterprise Area - established hubs for aviation tech; makes aircraft parts, electronic systems etc.
Aerospace courses at local universities available.
How is Bristol changing? (3 things)
Population increase + more diverse
Better accessibility (road, rail, air)
2 million people live within 50km of the city
Cultural Opportunities in Bristol
Youthful population = nightclubs, bars
•COLSTON HALL - concerts, entertainment
•THE BRISTOL OLD VIC - plays, dance, etc
Sport in Bristol
2 soccer teams; City and Rovers
Rugby Union team
Teams are developing stadiums = lessors, conference facilities and accommodation!
Effect of Cribbs Causeway
It was an out-of-town retail park, which affected Broadmead shopping development in the outdated city center.
Why were improved shopping facilities needed?
•compete with other cities
Developments in the city center (CBD) which was outdated?
•pedestrianising the area
•installing CCTV = more safety
•providing a more attractive shopping environment (new furniture, landscapes etc)
•more public transport
What is Cabot Circus?
Development opened in Sep, 2008
A shopping center
Bristol's Harbourside - how did it create social opp?
Former workshops + warehouses made into cars and nightclubs and cultural venues.
Includes art gallery, media and art center, museum and science exhibition center.
•free three day annual harbourside festival attracts 300,000 spectators
What does successful urban regeneration have to do?
Improve an area economically, environmentally and socially.
Describe the 3 key aspects of this regeneration.
-Enterprise Zone status- encourages economic growth and the creation of jobs by giving incentives to businesses to move there.
-Improved access in Bristol- electrification, Temple Meads station improvements and improved road layout
-New bridge across the River Avon- access to new Bristol Arena
Give examples of how the area has been regenerated.
-Engine shed- for hight-tech and creative businesses
-Glass Wharf- new office development
-Paintworks- new mixed use development
-Electrification of London to Bristol Railway line
Describe access and redevelopment of the Bristol Arena.
Access by the new bridge over the river and by a pedestrian and cycling bridge to 'Arena Island'. The route us to be redeveloped with cafes, offices and flats
What will the Bristol Arena be used for?
Theatre style events, conventions, exhibitions and sporting events.
Describe the reuse of Brunel's Engine Shed
Home to high-tech, creative and low carbon sector companies- the centre includes
-18 micro-electronics, media and digital production companies,
-44 more companies who use the facility
-a company developing the next generation of wifi
-the use of superfast broadband
Why are brownfield sites more expensive to build on?
The land and buildings must be cleared first and the may be contaminated from previous industrial use.
Advantages in developing brownfield sites?
-existing buildings can be put to a range of uses
-the land is often disused or in a state of dereliction
-reduces urban sprawl
-improves the urban environment (using unsightly areas)
-sites are often in urban areas, so reduces car use
Why did the Temple Quarter need regeneration?
-run down and gave a bad impression to visitors (often the first area seen by them)
What was the area like before regeneration?
It was an industrial area, often flooded (until the construction of the 'Floating harbour'). 1841- Brunel built the first railway station.
What are the four separate areas within the Temple Quarter?
Temple Meads City Gateway, Temple Quay,Avon Riverside and Silverthorne Lane.
Describe the regeneration in the Temple Quarter.
The area includes the remains of the ironworks and Brunel's original railway tracks and several listed buildings. The cobble streets give character to the area, and the former industrial yards are used as car parks.
Why was the green belt set up?
To prevent urban sprawl on the rural-urban fringe and the merging of Bath and Bristol.
Why has there been expansion of towns on the edges of the city?
Because Bristol's importance as a regional centre means that many people travel from the surrounding areas to work in the city.
Reason for the recent government policy encouraging the use of greenfield sites?
The national shortage of new houses
Why did local people object to the Harry Stoke development in South Gloucestershire?
-increased congestion, road traffic noise and poor air quality
-impacts on the ecology and loss of habitats
-loss of open space and recreational areas
-impact on community services and facilities
-effect of development on flood risk
How many brownfield sites have been identified and what were they be used for?
89- former office buildings, public houses, coach depots, factories, dockyards and listed buildings
Demand for brownfield land has risen due to...
The growing need for student accommodation
Why did the Bristol dockyard decline?
Cargo ships became too large to come up the River Avon from the Bristol Channel
Why has the Bristol Harbourside scheme been successful?
-run down area has been redeveloped
-people still live in the centre- city doesn't have a dead heart in the evenings
-several listed buildings have been preserved
What 5 factors make Bristol an important city?
-Culture and entertainment
How many universities does Bristol have?
Bristol is the UK's _______ most popular city for foreign visitors
Why is Bristol's industry so important?
It has the largest concentration of silicon chip manufacture outside of California
What are Bristol's two major docks?
Avonmouth and Royal Portbury
How has Bristol's location helped its recent growth and development?
-Close to the M4 road
-good road and rail links
-easy access to London
-easy rail and ferry services to Europe
What links Bristol to major European centres and the USA?
What traditional industry did Bristol used to depend?
Tobacco and paper industry
What new global industries has Bristol developed?
-financial and business services
What has there been a large inward investment in recently, which has helped Bristol's growth and development?
How has Bristol University helped Bristol's recent growth and development?
The university attracts students from all over the world, providing graduates for professional, managerial, and knowledge-based jobs
Migration from abroad has accounted for about ____ of Bristol's population growth
From which 2 countries in particular are Bristol's migrants from?
Poland and Spain
What positive impacts have migrants had in Bristol?
- a hard working and motivated workforce
- enriching the city's cultural life
- young migrants help to balance an ageing
- contribute to local and national economy
- improves skill levels where there are shortages
What negative impacts have migrants had on Bristol?
- challenge of integration into the wider
- there is a need to provide education for children
whose first language is not English
- pressures on housing and employment
How many countries are represented in Bristol's population?
European Green Capital
Bristol was the first city to achieve this.
What is Bristol doing to improve the environment? (By 2020)
-improved energy efficiency
-development of renewable energy
Bristols Plans: sustainable employment
Increase number of jobs in low carbon industries from 9000 to 17000 by 2030
Bristols first year as EGC:
•175 business created a "Green" action plan
•Int. Festival on leadership in green tech
•Int. Competition to develop environmental awareness mobile app game
•first 100 electric car charging points put
•every primary pupil planted a tree
Bristols Integrated Transport System - WHY?
- 2012: Bristol was the second most congested city in the UK.
-Journey during rush hours = 31% longer than other times of the day
-Highest % of people waking and cycling in the UK
Integrated Transport System - what does it do?
Connects different types of transport
Journeys become smoother
Encourages public transport use
Reduces traffic congestion
Rapid Transit Network: 3 bus routes, linking the main Temple Meads railway with the citys Park and Ride cites.
What are Bristols environmental challenges?
Many industrial buildings = detelict
Demand for new homes = urban sprawl, new housing developments in rural areas on the edge of the city
Where are the dereliction areas?
Port area, after it moved downstream from the city
Stokes Croft- what happened?
Derelict buildings + homes
Stokes Croft- what is being done?
Bristol City Council obtained lottery grants to help improve the economic activity in the area
Artists and activists did some community art
Did the people like the changes?
There have been some protests about the possible GENTRIFICATION of the area (people can't afford to live there now)
How has urban growth led to urban sprawl?
Bristol was heaving bombed during WWII
(3200 houses lost, 1800 damaged)
In 1955, 43 families per week were moving into new homes in new estates like Hartcliffe on the edge of the built up area.
Where has urban sprawl in Bristol extended to?
NW of the city
New town of Bradley Stoke has extended the city to the north
Reduction of Urban Sprawl
Btw 2006-2013, only 6% of new homes were on greenfield land
BY 2026 over 30,000 new homes are planned on brownfield sites
Planned brownfield developments will be high density with and avg of 210 houses/hectare.
What is Finzels Reach
A small scale brownfield site which has been successfully developed
This is a 2-hectare brownfield site near CBD
there is office space, shops and 400 apartments
What is Bristols waste disposal problem?
1/2 a million tonnes of wasye per year. Amongst the worst cities in the UK for food waste production
How is Bristol reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal?
-reducing amount of waste sent to landfill sites
-reducing the amount of waste generated per household by 15%
-increasing the amount of waste recycling to 50%
Bristols population has grown by 9% since 2000 but the amount of household waste has been reduced by 18% in the same period
How has that been achieved?
1. Agreeing higher targets with contractors who handle household waste
2. Doing more to teach pupils in schools about the importance of recycling
3. Specialised kerbsode collections + recycling facilities
4. Technological improvements in technology
Did those strategies work?
Yes, and they also generated income when recycling materials were sent to reprocessing plants in England and Wales
Avonmouth Waste Treatment plant
Treats 200,000 tonnes of waste a year. Any non recyclable waste is used to generate enough electricity to meet 25,000 Bristol households
Bristols Atmospheric Pollution
Vehicle emissions are the main cause of air pollution in Bristol.
Bristol is the most congested city in England.
200 people die in the city per year due to air pollution
How are they reducing Bristols atmospheric pollution?
-reducing speed limits
-the Frome Gateway, a walking and cycling route to the city centre
-electric vehicle programme with charging points in 40 public car parks
-a smartphone app with information about public transport
Bristols eco-friendly poo bus
Powered by human and food waste to transport people between Bath and Bristol Airport
Runs on BIOMETHANE GAS produced at a sewage treatment works.
Can travel up to 300km on one tank of gas which takes the annual waste of about 5 people to produce