Edexcel Chemistry 4.8 Further organic chemistry
Edexcel Chemistry 4.8 Further organic chemistry
Terms in this set (87)
A reaction in which a carbon-carbon double bond is replaced by a single bond and a new molecule is added into the original double-bonded molecule.
A reaction in which many monomers with a carbon-carbon double bond react together in addition reactions to form a polymer chain
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2n + 1OH.
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2nO, in which the functional group CHO is found.
Straight-chain and branched hydrocarbon compounds.
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2n + 2.
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2n.
The functional group -C=O.
The functional group -COOH.
A homologous series with the general formula Cn − 1H2n − 1COOH in which the functional group COOH is found.
The reaction of a hydrocarbon with oxygen at high temperatures in which the products are carbon dioxide and water.
Condensed structural formula
A formula that shows the arrangement of atoms of each element without showing all the bonds in one molecule of a compound.
Removal of the colour of a bromine solution by the reaction with an alkene.
A molecule composed of two identical subunits linked together.
A formula that shows the simple whole-number ratio of elements in a compound.
The functional group -CO-O- made up of a carbonyl group with another oxygen atom bonded to it. This functional group, is only found in the middle of molecules, not at the end.
A reactive species containing an unpaired electron that is the product of homolytic ﬁssion.
An atom or group of atoms that inﬂuences the chemical properties of a compound.
A halogen atom covalently bonded to a hydrocarbon as a functional group.
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2n + 1X, where X is a member of group 7 in the periodic table.
The breaking of a covalent bond in which one of the atoms involved in the bond retains both electrons from the bond, forming an anion, and the other atom (part of the molecule) forms a carbocation.
A family of compounds that share the same general formula.
The breaking of a covalent bond in which each atom involved in the bond retains one electron from the bond.
An addition reaction between an alkene and steam.
A compound predominantly made up of carbon and hydrogen.
The functional group -OH.
An addition reaction between an alkene and hydrogen gas.
The reaction of a hydrocarbon with oxygen at high temperatures in which the products are carbon monoxide, and/or carbon and water.
The system that determines the names given to compounds, devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists.
A homologous series with the general formula CnH2nO, where n ≥ 3, in which the functional group C=O is found.
A formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in one molecule of a compound.
A reactant with a non-bonding electron pair or a negative charge, which is attracted to a centre of positive charge.
A substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to a positive charge centre.
A reaction in which oxygen is gained and/or hydrogen is lost.
Primary alcohol or halogenoalkane
An alcohol or halogenoalkane in which the functional group is bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to only one other carbon atom.
A sequence of reaction steps that shows in detail how a reaction possibly occurs.
A series of steps tracing the reaction of a reactant to form a product it cannot form directly.
A compound in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
An alcohol or halogenoalkane in which the functional group is bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to two other carbon atoms.
A nucleophilic substitution reaction in which only one species is needed to form the reactive intermediate
A nucleophilic substitution reaction in which two species are needed to form the reactive intermediate.
A formula that shows the arrangement of all the atoms and bonds in one molecule of a compound.
Molecules which have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
A reaction in which one atom in a hydrocarbon is replaced by a different atom.
An alcohol or halogenoalkane in which the functional group is bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to three other carbon atoms.
A compound that contains at least one carbon-carbon double or triple bond.
The ease with which a liquid turns into a vapour at low temperatures.
The positively charged species formed following the heterolytic fission of the C-X bond in a halogenoalkane.
A chiral molecule and its mirror image cannot be placed so they match exactly. A chiral molecule lacks a plane of symmetry in the molecule. A chiral carbon in a molecule is one that has four different substituents attached.
Condensation polymerization reaction
A reaction in which monomers with two functional groups react together in condensation reactions to form a polymer chain.
A reaction in which two molecules containing functional groups react and join together with the formation of a small molecule (often water).
Optically active compounds that rotate light clockwise (to the right) are said to be dextrorotatory. By convention, rotation to the right is given a plus sign (+).
The removal of a hydrogen halide HX from a halogenoalkane to form an alkene. Occurs in competition with substitution reactions when a halogenoalkane is reacted with a nucleophile.
E1 (unimolecular elimination)
An elimination reaction in which the rate of reaction depends on the concentration of the halogenoalkane only: Rate = k[RX]. In the two-step process a carbocation forms slowly by the spontaneous heterolytic fission of the C-X bond in the halogenoalkane. A base then removes a hydrogen atom from the carbon atom adjacent to the C-X carbon atom.
E2 (bimolecular elimination)
An elimination reaction in which the rate of reaction depends on the concentration of the halogenoalkane and the base (B): Rate = k[B][RX]. In the one-step process the base attacks a hydrogen atom on the carbon atom adjacent to the C-X carbon atom, forming a transition state with partially formed C-X, C-H, B-H and C=C bonds.
Isomers that are that not identical to their mirror images, non-superimposable mirror images. Enantiomers rotate plane-polarized light to the same extent, but in opposite directions. One is therefore the ( −) or l-form, the other the ( +) or d-form.
Molecules with the same molecular formula and structural formula, but with different spatial arrangements of atoms due to restricted rotation about a double bond or a ring structure.
The breaking of a covalent bond in which one of the atoms involved in the bond retains both electrons from the bonds, forming an anion.
Optically active compounds that rotate light counterclockwise (to the left) are said to be levorotatory. By convention, rotation to the left is given a minus sign (−).
Molecules with the same molecular and structural formulas, but with different spatial arrangements of atoms. Molecules that are not identical to their mirror image. Also known as enantiomers.
Light with waves oscillating in a single plane.
A device in which plane-polarized light is passed through a tube containing a solution of an optically active organic compound. Rotation of the light occurs. The light then passes to a second polarizer—the analyser. By rotating the analyser until the light passes through it, the new plane of polarization can be found. The extent of rotation is then measured as the angle (α) between the original and rotated planes of light.
Positive inductive effect
The tendency of alkyl groups to 'push' the bonding electron pair towards the carbon of the C-X bond in a halogenoalkane. One effect of electron 'pushing' alkyl groups is to allow the positive charge of the central carbon in the carbocation to be dispersed, and so to be more stabilized.
Racemic mixture or racemate
A 50 : 50 mixture of two enantiomers. Racemic mixtures show zero optical activity because the rotation from one enantiomer exactly cancels the opposite rotation by the other enantiomer.
SN1 (unimolecular nucleophilic substitution)
A nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the rate of reaction depends on the concentration of one reactant only: Rate = k[RX]. In the two-step process a carbocation forms slowly by the spontaneous heterolytic fission of the C-X bond in the halogenoalkane. The nucleophile then reacts rapidly with the carbocation.
SN2 (bimolecular nucleophilic substitution)
A nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the rate of reaction depends on the concentrations of both reactants: Rate = k[Nu][RX]. In the one-step process the nucleophile attacks the halogenoalkane, forming a transition state with partially formed C-X and C-Nu bonds.
Molecules with the same molecular and structural formulas, but with different spatial arrangements of atoms. Two types occur, geometric and optical.
A change in reactivity due to the spatial arrangement of groups of atoms. It includes the tendency of bulky alkyl groups to crowd the approach of an attacking species, or the crowding by groups of atoms within the same molecule.
An electron-donating group, such as hydroxyl, attached to the benzene ring that increases the reactivity of the ring towards electrophilic substitution reaction. All activating groups are ortho-para directors.
The carboxylic acid derivative of general formula RCOCl. Also known as an acid chloride.
In electrophilic substitution, the substitution of an acyl group for a hydrogen atom on the benzene ring.
A reaction in which two reactants join, then a small molecule is eliminated from the product of the addition. Examples include the reaction of aldehydes and ketones with hydrazines, and the reactions of acyl chlorides with nucleophiles such as water, alcohols and amines. Addition-elimination reactions may be thought of more simply as condensation reactions.
The anion, RO-, formed when an alcohol loses a proton.
In electrophilic substitution, the substitution of an alkyl group for a hydrogen atom on the benzene ring.
The carboxylic acid derivative of general formula (RCO)2O.
Compounds with the general formula RCH(OH)CN or RR′C(OH)CN. Also known as a hydroxynitriles. Formed by the nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to an aldehyde or ketone.
An electron-withdrawing group, such as nitro, attached to the benzene ring that decreases the reactivity of the ring towards electrophilic substitution reaction. Most deactivating groups are meta directors (but halogens are deactivating ortho-para directors).
An electron-loving species. A reactant with a full or partial positive charge that is attracted to a centre of negative charge.
The addition of an electrophile to an alkene to produce a saturated product.
A reaction in which an electrophile, (E+), reacts with a benzene ring and substitutes for one of the hydrogens on the ring.
The compound H2NNH2 and derivatives of this compound. For example, phenylhydrazine, H2NNH(C6H5), and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, H2NNH(C6H3(NO2)2). Derivatives produced by reaction with aldehydes and ketones (hydrazones) have distinctive melting points and may be used to identify the reacting compound.
In the addition of HX to an alkene, the H attaches to the carbon with fewer alkyl substituents, and the X attaches to the carbon with more alkyl substituents.
In electrophilic substitution, the substitution of a nitro (NO2) group for a hydrogen atom on the benzene ring.
A reaction in which a nucleophile adds to the electrophilic carbonyl group of a ketone or aldehyde.
A compound with an OH group bonded directly to a benzene ring, ArOH.
The anion, ArO-, formed when phenol loses a proton.
Representations of the structure of a molecule which differ in the positions of their electrons only. The structure of the molecule cannot be adequately represented by a single representation, and so is seen to be a hybrid or average of the various resonance structures.
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