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Final Exam Power and Politics Definitions and Such
Terms in this set (112)
According to the spatial model of election campaigns, how do campaigns occur? (4)
-candidates announce their platforms: that is, what policy they will enact if elected
-candidates can change their platforms as many times as they want
-once both candidates have settled on a platform, voters cast ballots
-the winning candidate must enact the platform she promised in the campaign
The spatial model is run on three different assumptions, what are they (3)
-Candidates care only about getting elected; they do not have preferences over policies
-voters vote for the candidate whose platform is closest to their preferred policies. If a voter is indifferent, he flips a coin to determine his vote
An equilibrium will be reached in the spatial model if given the platforms of the candidates and the votes of the voters: (2)
-no candidate wishes to change her platform
-no voter wishes to change his vote
Relaxing the first assumption: candidates don't care about getting re-elected, what happens to the equilibrium?
-does not change
-a policy oriented candidate dislikes the policy that will be enacted by the other candidate should the other candidate win
-therefore, she moves to the median voter's position in order to have the best chance at winning while keeping policy as close to her ideal point as possible
Relaxing the second assumption in the spatial model (voters don't vote just for the candidate whose platform is closest to his preferred policy).
check out the slides for week 9 to figure out more on the spatial model
Relaxing the third assumption of the spatial model (everybody votes), produces equilibria where candidates move toward ____________ sides of the policy space
Ultimately, relaxing the second and third assumption of the spatial model, leads the candidates to adopt _____________ platforms in equilibrium
What are the three ways to understand the vote?
-The Median Voter Theorem
-candidates have strong incentives offer moderate policy platforms
-The Strength of the Economy
-voters credit incumbents for strong economies and punish them for weak ones
-a vast majority of voters simply vote for the candidate who shares their party identification
Year in and year out, the _________________ is the most important predictor of which party's candidate wins US presidential elections
economic health of the nation
At the individual level, the most important factor determining someone's vote is her or her ______________________________
_________ systems award a legislative seat to the candidate that receives a plurality of votes in a constituency
___________ systems award seats to parties based on the proportion of all the votes they receive
__________________-voting for a second-choice candidate because your first-choice candidate is unlikely to win
strategic voting is more likely in a ______________ than ___________ systems, which leads majoritarian systems to tend toward two party competition, that is known as ______________.
___________ systems reinforce stability and coalition-building at the expense of offering true choice
______________ systems offer voters more customized choices but often lead to instability
The Fifth Party System is characterized by: (3)
-Presidential primaries and caucuses that actually matter
-national conventions where very few important decisions are actually made
-more periods of divided government: Congress controlled by a different party than the presidency
What important changes mark the turn of a Sixth System?
-partisanship is in resurgence in the electorate
-partisan polarization marks all three branches of government
-there is usually strong alignment between ideology and partisanship
Party coalitions that maybe have inspired a Sixth Party System (5)
-about all groups of non-white voters favor the Democratic Party; Republicans increasingly capture a large share of whites' votes
-a large gender gap has emerged
-religiosity has become a key partisan divide
-professionals have moved dramatically in the Democratic direction
-young voters strongly favor democrats
Gerring proclaims that there is ideological heritage that can be traced; The enduring themes of the republican party are (3). Today, this is the __________ ideology.
social order, economic growth, patriotism
distrust of the state's ability to do much besides regulate morality, preserve order, and defend the homeland
Since the founding of the modern of the Democratic party by Andrew Jackson, it has stressed _____________. Today, it is _______________: it includes many other groups, particularly racial and ethnic minorities-and more peacefully coexists with capitalism
look for the consistency of political parties in slides 12
just so you know
Evidence is overwhelming that children absorb the _______________ of their parents
Party ID's persistence is strong-it rivals that of ________ identification in some instances
Children who abandon their parents' party ID tend to become ____________, not switch to the other party
In this conceptualization, voters keep a list of the parties; good and bad points in their head and adjust the tally to incorporate new information
-they identify with the party that comes out ahead in the tally
-a purely rational model
In reality, voters are _______ rational and social in the ways they incorporate party labelsninto their interpretation of political events and their voting decisions
We find a strong relationship between how ______ a state is and how __________ its representatives are in Congress
Why does Dr. Egan say that the American democracy is only pretty good, rather than excellent? (4)
-partisan polarization and the vanishing middle
-disconnect between party ownership and performance
-the tyranny of the majority
-the system isn't set up to solve long-term problems
With what issues is there a general consensus about goals? (4)
What issues do the Republicans own?
What issues do the Democrats own?
__________ is completely unrelated to issue ownership
If you can't vote you can't participate in democracy, who or what prevents people from voting?
voter ID laws
Institutions are rules or organizations that (3)
Organizations: Congress, Presidency, courts
Rules: the filibuster, the presidential veto, the Electoral College
manage conflicts between political rivals
help them find solutions
make and enforce society's collective agreements
_____________ ______________ is the extent to which an institutional actor is able to determine (2)
-whether a vote will be held on a particular issue (negative agenda control)
-what the vote will be about (positive agenda control)
Name a powerful agenda setter within our government
the Speaker of the House
an informal practice adopted by Speakers from both parties as of late: Do not hold a floor vote on any bill that does not have majority support in the majority party
for more on the agenda setter model check out slides from week 14 or week 15
What are the 5 institutional features of congress?
-the electoral connection
-the need for efficiency
-the need for information
-agenda control all over the place
-how a bill becomes a law
Members in Congress will do better as a party if they all _________ to solve national problems. But they'll do better as ________ if they attend to their geographic and political constituencies. Recent trends toward emphasizing party labels have ameliorated this, but only somewhat. SO Congress is very good at bestowing benefits to concentrated interests whose costs are paid for by a diffuse public
Any bill that is introduced is assigned to one or more _________ under whose jurisdiction it falls
Membership of committees is appointed by the _________ of the parties. The partisan breakdown of each committee typically reflects the ratio of Ds to Rs in the whole chamber.
Typically after a bill is assigned to a committee, _____________________.
Congress is a relatively _______________ institution compared to the presidency. But _____________ of Congress (MCs) remain relatively popular with their consittuents
It's difficult for Congress to pass legislation that moves policy toward the national _________ __________ preferences, but MCs have both the incentives and the power to block legislation that upsets concentrated interests in their constituencies
How has the presidency changed over time? (3)
-become more powerful
-become the central focus of the nation's political life
-it's become more independent
What two factors combined to move power into the hands of the presidency? (2)
Progressive-Era reforms, which put more jobs under the purview of the civil service
-Congressional delegation of the administration of an ever more complex government to the president
Today, what powers does the president have that are pretty handy? (4)
-commands an executive policymaking staff of 400 people
-comes into office with a defined legislative agenda
-can speak to the American public directly through mass media
-commands a military that is constantly in use
Skowronek's The Politics Presidents Make is the best attempt to consider how the role of the presidency can be compared across time. He notes that presidents are elected facing either a ____________ or _______ policy "regime." New Deal liberalism (dominant in '40s; weak by '70s) Anti-tax conservatism (dominant in '80s; weak by late '00s)
(Skowronek) The incoming president can either be __________ or _________ to that regime.
What type of presidents are elected at a time when there is a consensus that something fundamental is wrong-and they represent change? Presents great opportunity for __________ action and recast the political order-but no necessarily action that solves problems. These types of presidents tend to be great party leaders, but they also tend to stand aside from previously established parties and create new coalitions. Which presidents were these type?
What type of presidents govern at a time when there is a consensus that the current system isn't working-but they are nevertheless affiliated with it? These presidents are torn between two bad choices: -Affirm the established order, and become a symbol of failure -repudiate the established order, and become isolated and powerless We typically consider these presidents feckless and incompetent. They are often replaced by reconstructive presidents. What presidents are representative of this?
What type of presidents govern in an era when they are affiliated with a prevailing philosophy of government that is widely considered to be solving problems? The challenge these presidents face is to be both orthodox to the prevailing philosophy and to innovate. More presidents in this category than any other. Rise through the ranks of the established regime. Which presidents are representative of this?
LBJ, Bush I
What type of president comes to power despite being opposed to a prevailing governing philosophy that is still popular and thus resilient. They have the institutional power of the presidency but are severely constrained- an "alien force." All three impeached presidents were this type. Which presidents are representative of this?
In our separation of powers system, the most consequential function of the federal judiciary is its power of _____________, which is the ability to declare an enacted law unconstitutional, and in so doing nullify the law. Which court case enacted it?
Marbury vs. Madison
evolving power of judicial review in the modern era look on slide 18
Considering the courts today, what three arguments do we have to consider? (3)
-On its own, the Court has no power to change policy (Rosenberg)
-The Court's activities can have important consequences for public opinion (Egan et al)
-The Court has the jurisdiction it does only because the other two branches want it to (Whittington)
According to _________, relying on the Court to change public policy is a "hollow hope": without the acquiescence of other political actors, change is difficult.
The Court's power to change opinion is limited by how _________ respond to its decisions
Courts really only have power to the extent that the ______ actors in a system allow it to do so.
The smaller the __________ associated with a coefficient, the more sure we are the effect of the variable is different form zero
The smaller the ___________ associated with a coefficient, the more sure we are that the effect of the variable is different from zero
What are the three categories of explanations for why the US welfare state is relatively small: Alesina reading
Good evidence exists for the hypotheses that America's low tax, low redistribution system is attributable to: ________ institutional reason, name it. ___________ cultural reasons, name them.
-our geographic, rather than proportional system
-our long standing individualistic beliefs, reinforced through waves of immigration and
-our high degree of racial diversity, which makes Americans reluctant to redistribute to those they think of as different
Alesina et al also consider the idea that the degree to which a society is _______ ________________ leads to lower levels of redistribution, as people are reluctant to redistribute to those of other races
How does foreign policy differ from domestic policy? (4)
-the need for fast action/rapid response
-the president as even more of a focus
-congress often passes the buck
-domestic interest groups play a more limited role
The ____________ has very little influence on the opinions of policymakers regarding American foreign policy. Furthermore, business and labor leaders appear to have some effect on the opinions of experts
________ ______________ plays a weaker role on the foreign policy arena than the domestic policy arena
3 concepts that help us understand policymaking
-group costs vs. diffuse benefits
What is it called when legislators want credit for easy votes for their constituents. They want to avoid blame for difficult votes, but sometimes policy solutions require difficult votes
What concept in policymaking is this? We know that congress is set up to grant small groups benefits while the diffuse public pays for them. but policy solutions usually require just the opposite
group costs vs. diffuse benefits
What is this concept in policymaking: in a polarized Congress, MCs want to win idological battles first and solve problems second
What are the two difficult policy problems?
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) include _______, _________, and ___________.
carbon, methane, and nitrogen
What are four sources of human-made GHGs
What does rising temperatures result in? (3)
-more heat waves and droughts
-more intense storms, including hurricanes
-sea-level rise and floods
what are rising temperatures projected to cause? (3)
-human suffering and migration
-insect migration and outbreaks
-threats to crops and other food supply
Climate change also happens to make ____________ worse
The places most vulnerable to climate change tend to be the places that are most ________
What can be done to fix climate change: reducing emissions of GHGsm prepare for climate change. What are examples of this (4)?
-switch power generation to low or no emissions sources
-reduce auto emissions
-reduce energy consumption, including in residential and commercial settings
Many Americans are _______ ______________ by the complex issue of climate change
Most Americans will continue to enjoy ___________ ____________ until it's too late
Less than half of very polarized US _______ ______ ___________ of anthropogenic climate change
accepts the fact
Climate change is a very _______ __________ for Americans
Rural areas have shifted toward GOP in recent years
Also, check out the slides 23 for more on climate change
Reason for more rural areas going GOP (2)
Growing _________ inequality is one of the signature economic phenomena of our times. Including gender and race. Also relevant is geography and education.
Why is rural life fading away in America? (3)
-fewer people live outside metro areas
-employment in rural areas is focused on manufacturing, mining, agriculture
-but those are the sectors that are losing workers as the US moves to a services-based economy
America the __________ is in fine shape, America the _________ most certainly is not.
What reforms are being considered?
The one reform that makes sense to Egan is the ___________________, which would give the president the power to strike out individual items
line item veto
Where can a veto stop a bill? (4)
-in a committee (most die here)
-before it reaches the floor
-on the floor
-by presidential veto
What are the 3 key take-aways from Marbury vs. Madison?
-constitution takes precedence
-unconstitutional law is void
-judiciary is responsible for determining Constitutionality
law developed by judges
a decision made in one case will be followed in the next
a theory of statutory interpretation that holds that a statute's original meaning as evidenced in its text should govern how judges interpret the statute, as opposed to alternative methods of statutory interpretation such as inquiring into historical sources in attempt to discover the intent of the legislative body that approved the statute
what would a reasonable member of Congress have wanted the judges to interpret the law to say
Why does Scalia reject legislative histories? (2)
invites personal bias on the part of judges
legislative history creep
Why does Breyer reject a textualist approach?
-legislators can't foresee all outcomes
-legislation may no longer be relevant
In Citizens United, what was the holding?
corporations, unions, and other associations and organizations have a first amendment right to use money from their treasuries for independent campaign expenditures
Prior to DC vs. Heller, DC effectively _________ private owned handguns. Heller struck this down. What's the significance
opened the door to challenges to other gun control laws by viewing the 2nd amendment as an individual right rather than as protection for state militias
What was the central question in the first era of judicial review?
national authority vs. states' rights
What was the central question in the second era of the court? and what did it result in?
Can the government regulate the national economy?
FDR's court packing
What was the central question in the third era of judicial review?
Individual rights vs. government authority
Federal judiciary is now more _______________ than at any time since New Deal Era
Whittington argues that the court has the power that other institutions give it. What are three examples of instances under which it has taken place?
overcoming entrenched interests
overcoming fractious coalitions
What does social policy generally seek to do ? (2)
The American welfare state is ____________ than those of most other industrialized nations
look at the last few slides of the 2018 review slides for more on the spatial model
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