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Psychology: Themes and Variations Chapter 4 Vocab
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception (66 terms) pages 118-171; Transcribed by alexwyllie
Terms in this set (66)
The stimulation of sense organs.
The selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input.
The study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience.
The minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect.
Just noticeable difference (JND)
The smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect.
The size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus.
Signal detection theory
The detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity.
The registration of sensory input without conscious awareness.
A gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation.
The transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina.
Close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry.
Distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry.
The opening in the center of the iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eye.
The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain.
A hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye.
Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision.
A tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot.
Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision.
The process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination.
The process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination.
Receptive field of a visual cell
The retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell.
When neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells.
The point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of the eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain.
Simultaneously extracting different kinds of information from the same input.
Neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli.
Subtractive color mixing
Removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there.
Additive color mixing
Superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself.
The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths.
A variety of deficiencies in the ability to distinguish among colors.
Pairs of colors that produce gray tones when mixed together.
A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed.
Opponent process theory
Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors.
A drawing that is comparable with two interpretations that can shift back and forth.
A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way.
The failure to see visible objects or events because one's attention is focused elsewhere.
The process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form.
A progression from individual elements to the whole.
A progression from the whole to the elements.
The perception of contours where none actually exist.
The illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession.
Stimuli that lie in the distance (that is, in the world outside the body).
The stimulus energies that impinge directly on sensory receptors.
An inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed.
Interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are.
Binocular depth cues
Clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes.
Objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so each eye sees a slightly different view of the object.
Sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects.
Monocular depth cues
Clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone.
Images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates.
Pictorial depth cues
Clues about distance that can be given in a flat picture.
A tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input.
An apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality.
Objects that can be represented in two-dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimensional space.
A fluid-filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing.
Runs the entire length of the spiraled cochlea and holds the auditory receptors.
Perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different potions, or places, along the basilar membrane.
The perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates.
Groups of auditory nerve fibers fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses.
Locating the source of a sound in space.
The sensory system for taste.
The sensory system for smell.
Incoming pain sensations must pass through a gate in the spinal cord that can be closed, thus blocking ascending pain signals.
Monitors the position of the various parts of the body.
Responds to gravity and keeps you informed of your body's location in space.
Making a large request that is likely to be turned down as a way to increase the chances that people will agree to a smaller request later.
People, objects, events, and other standards used as a baseline for comparison in making judgements.
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