96 terms

Basic Civics EOC Review 1

STUDY
PLAY
Enlightenment
The __________ was a European intellectual movement in the 18th century that (among other things) questioned the traditional authority of aristocrats and monarchs.
John Locke
__________ - natural rights are life, liberty and property.
John Locke
Enlightenment philosopher who argued that governments' main purpose is to protect natural rights.
revolution
John Locke argued that people have a right of __________ against governments that do not protect natural rights.
consent of the governed
John Locke argued that the authority of any legitimate government comes from the __________.
Declaration of Independence
John Locke's ideas greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson when he was drafting the __________.
Montesquieu
__________ - Enlightenment philosopher who argued that government should have a separation of powers.
Separation of powers
__________ - governmental power divided into three branches of government so that no one branch would have too much power.
check and balance
The separation of powers allows for the different branches of government to __________ each other.
Social contract
__________ - implied agreement among people; defines rights/duties/limitations of governed & government.
Social contract
Government protects the people's natural rights and, in return, the people support the government.
Magna Carta
1215 A.D. document that theoretically limited the power of the English king.
Mayflower Compact
Agreement among most of the men aboard the Mayflower to form a government once ashore.
English Bill of Rights
Document that expanded the powers of the English Parliament and expanded the rights of the people, as well as further limited the rights of the king (1689).
Common Sense
Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from England
Thomas Paine
Who published Common Sense in 1776 to convince the American colonists to support becoming independent from England?
French and Indian War
War fought between the British and the French (and their respective Native allies) mostly over control of the Ohio River Valley.
Proclamation of 1763
Banned colonists from owning or settling land west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Stamp Act
British tax on all colonial documents, newspapers, pamphlets and even playing cards (1765).
no taxation without representation
Phrase used by colonists protesting the Stamp Act because they had no representatives in Parliament
Stamp Act Congress
What group met in New York and called for a boycott of British goods until the Stamp Act was repealed?
Boycott
__________ - refusing to buy things as a means of pressuring someone to do something
Declaratory Act
Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the __________ which stated that they could tax the colonists if they wanted to.
Boston Tea Party
1773 protest of the Tea Act that involved colonists "disguised" as Mohawk Indians dumping crates of Tea into Boston Harbor.
Boston Tea Party
The __________ led to Parliament passing the Intolerable Acts and eventually to the Revolutionary War.
Intolerable Acts
Boston Tea Party led to Parliament passing the __________ and eventually to the Revolutionary War.
Second Continental Congress
On July 2nd, 1776, the __________ voted to declare independence.
Second Continental Congress
On July 4th the __________ finished editing the Declaration of Independence and sent it to the printer.
Declaration of Independence
On July 4th the Second Continental Congress finished editing the __________ and sent it to the printer.
Thomas Jefferson
__________ was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
The Declaration stated that men were created equal, that they had unalienable rights including what?
unalienable rights (natural rights)
The Declaration stated that the purpose of government was to protect what?
consent of the governed
The Declaration stated that the power to govern comes from the __________.
unalienable rights (natural rights)
The Declaration stated that people had a right to revolt against governments that did not protect their __________.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States was the __________.
one branch
The Articles of Confederation created a government with __________.
very weak
The Articles of Confederation created a government that was __________.
unicameral
The Articles of Confederation created a government with a __________ legislature.
Confederation Congress
The Articles of Confederation government was a single branch, a unicameral legislature called the __________.
Shays' Rebellion
The Confederation Congress was too weak to do anything about __________ in Massachusetts.
Shays' Rebellion
Armed rebellion in Massachusetts against taking property from people who could not pay their taxes
Constitutional Convention
The __________ was in Philadelphia in 1787.
Constitution of 1787
The __________ is the framework for the current government of the United States.
Preamble
The purpose of the Constitution is explained in the __________.
Popular sovereignty
__________ is the idea that the power to govern comes from the people being governed.
We the people
What phrase from the US Constitution's Preamble indicates that the founders believed in popular sovereignty?
in Order to form a more perfect Union
Which Preamble phrase shows that the Constitution was supposed to improve on the Articles?
Federal
The Constitution sets up a __________ system that divides power between the central government and the state governments.
enumerated
The powers that only the Federal government has, such as minting money and declaring war, are known as __________ powers.
enumerated
__________ powers are sometime called delegated or expressed powers.
reserved
State government powers, such as running elections or school systems, are called __________ powers.
concurrent
Powers that the Federal and state governments share, such as levying taxes and enforcing laws.
three branches
The Federal government is divided into__________.
legislative branch
Congress is the
executive branch
The President of the United States heads the
judicial branch
The federal court system is the
legislative
Which branch's main function is to make the laws?
judicial
Which branch's main function is to interpret the laws?
Federal judges
__________ serve a "lifetime" term - during good behavior.
separation of power
The Constitution created three branches of government so that there was a __________.
checks and balances
Different branches of the US government act as __________ in an attempt to prevent the abuse of power.
veto
Congress can pass a bill, but the President can __________ it.
2/3
Congress can override a veto with a _________ vote in both houses.
Judicial review
__________ - Federal courts can rule that a law is unconstitutional.
Senate
The President has the power to nominate (hire) Federal judges, but the __________ must confirm them.
Article 1
__________ of the Constitution creates the legislative branch.
bicameral
The legislative branch (Congress) is a __________ legislature.
House of Representatives
The lower house of Congress, the __________, has 435 members.
Senate
The upper house of Congress, the __________, has 100 members.
435
The House of Representatives has __________ members.
100
The Senate has __________ members.
Speaker of the House
The most powerful member of the House of Representatives is the __________.
25
Members of the US House must be at least __________ years old.
7
Members of the US House must be a citizen at least __________ years before taking office.
2
Members of the House of Representatives serve __________ year terms.
population
The districts House members represent are apportioned to the states by __________.
California
The state with the largest number of House seats is __________ (53), because it has the highest population.
27
Florida has __________ Congressional districts.
census
Reapportionment occurs after every __________.
census
A __________ is an official count of the population. It determines how many House members each state has.
10
The census occurs every __________ years (next one - 2020).
100
The Senate has __________ members.
Majority Leader
The most powerful senator is the __________.
30
US Senators must be at least __________ years old.
9
Members of the US Senate must be a citizen at least __________ years before taking office.
6
Members of the US Senate serve __________ year terms.
1/3
Senators terms are staggered so that ________ of the Senate is up for reelection every 2 years.
2
Each state gets __________ senators regardless of size or population.
Article 1
__________ has a list of enumerated (sometimes delegated or expressed) powers granted to the Congress.
necessary and proper clause
Article 1 states that Congress can pass laws "which shall be necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers. Name this clause!
elastic clause
"Necessary and proper" clause, known as the __________, implies Congress has more than specifically listed powers.
Implied powers
__________ - Powers Congress has though not specifically listed in Article 1 (see elastic and commerce clauses).
bills
Proposed laws (_________) must be approved with identical language by both houses of Congress.
impeachment
Congress can fire high government officials (President, Federal judges, etc.) through _____.
majority
Impeachment starts when the House passes articles of impeachment with a __________ vote.
2/3
Impeachment trials in the Senate require a _____ vote to convict and remove the official.