Philosophy 1301

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The objects of knowledge, Plato says, are
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Match the characteristics of the forms in the world of being with the characteristics of the related object in the world of becoming:Sensible = Intelligible Subjective = Objective Imperfect = Perfect Imminent = Transcendent Changeable = Eternal A copy = ArchetypalWhat is the "Socratic Problem"?Because Socrates left nothing of his views in writing, we mainly know about him and his views through the dialogs and writings of Plato, thus we do not know when we are reading the views of Socrates or PlatoAccording to Socrates, the body is holding the soul back from being the most important thing to care about in life.TrueVirtue, Aristotle says, is defined by a mean relative to us. He means thatFacts about an individual and her circumstances are relevant to what should be doneFor Aristotle, universals were one of the following (select most correct answer)Concepts that were a universally real somethingFor Aristotle, the "four causes" were not only an explanation of Change and Non-Change, but they were also an illustration of the two fundamental characteristics of substanceThe first characteristic was actuality. The second characteristic was Potentiality.In Aristotle's account of the four causesThe material cause is the one that explains the individuality of thingsHeraclitus says thatHappiness consists in bodily pleasures, just as oxen are happy when they find vetch to eatAugustine introduced a "new" view of history, namely the idea that history essentially repeats itself over the generations of nations and peoplesFalseAugustine's view of Free Will isThat only Adam and Eve had Free Wills. After the "Fall", all mankind had hearts and wills that were polluted and tended toward choosing sin, the will was no longer fully freeAccording to Augustine, evil is the __________ of beingabsenceIn Augustine's view of Dualism, the two levels of reality were linked through a "Chain of Being" with God at the pinnacle. Each item (or element) in that chain under God exhibited a lesser degree ofbeingDescartes' argument (in Latin) "cogito, ergo sum", should be translated to "I exist, therefore I think"FalseThe second rule of Descartes' method requires analysis, breaking down composite things into simple elementsTrueUniversals, for Descartes were"clear and distinct ideas"Why, after proving God's existence, does human error become a problem for Descartes?Because we know God is perfect and would not deceive usHeraclitus tells us that happiness is possible only when all internal oppositions have been overcome in the unity of the logosFalseIn saying that all things are full of gods, Thales apparently meant thatEvents in the world could be explained in terms of events in the worldUniversal negative statementsAre true when the corresponding particular affirmative statements are falseA virtue is a habit that makes it easy to do the right thing in the appropriate circumstancesTrueThe following is one of the classical arguments for the existence of God (set out in summary form). From the following list of choices, correctly identify this argument. - Because the cosmos exhibits rational design, it must have been designed by an absolute rational (designing) mind.The Teleological ArgumentUniversals are general features of things, abstracted from particulars by the intellectTrueMatch the following definitions of Aquinas' four types of law to their correct title:Human Law = Law as generated by human authorities Natural Law = Law derived from the created states and structure of nature Divine Law = Law as revealed by God to mankind directly Eternal Law = Law as it exists in the mind of GodReason and revelation, Aquinas holds,Are two compatible sources of truthPhilosophers can be placed in one of two groups, namely "Inside-Out Philosophers" and "Outside-In Philosophers". Match the correct definition:Inside-Out Philosophers hold that = "the conviction that the cosmos was a reflection of the ideas or forms of the mind" Outside-In Philosophers hold that = "the mind being a blank slate that developed ideas about the cosmos based on experiences of the outside world which then shaped the ideas of the mind"What did Socrates claim to know?NothingThe Form of the GoodIs the ultimate explainerA virtue is a habit that makes it easy to the right thing in the appropriate circumstancesTrueHeraclitus says thatIt is not good for men to get everything they wantOne characteristic of knowledge, according to Plato, is that it enduresTrueAccording to Socrates, the body is holding the soul back.TrueThe source of wrongdoing and evil, according to Socrates, isThe result of ignoranceMost people, Heraclitus saysLive as they're though was private to themselvesHappiness, according to PlatoCondition of harmony among the parts of the soulUniversal negative statementsAre completely oppositeWhich of the following forms of government is a valid form of government?DemocracyTruth, according to AristotleRepresents things as they areThe first step on the ladder of love is the love of knowledgeFalseAccording to Democritus and the atomist, even the human soul is composed of atoms and the voidTrueOn the divided lineThe visible world is explained and produced by intelligibleKnowing does not differ from believingFeels certainThales could be considered the first scientist becauseAll is waterPlato argues that the soul is a unitary reality without parts or divisionFalseAccording to Dr. Ferguson, how did the following writers view Socrates:Aristophanes = Viewed Socrates as a fool Xenophanes = Viewed Socrates as a tragic hero Plato = Viewed Socrates as a heroHeraclitusHappiness is possibleAccording to Platoeducation turning the soul of the studentAristotle differs from PlatoHolding something like a puppyDescartes argues that material things can exist becauseThe idea of them is clear and distinctDescartes thinks it is important to prove the existence of God becauseOtherwise you couldn't be sure of anything but your own existenceThe second rule of Descartes' method requires analysis, breaking down composite things into their simple elementsTrueAquinas agrees with Aristotle that virtues are habits that guide choices, but habits developed in the light of blessedness in the world.TrueArguing from efficient causality, Aquinas says thatA series of causes cannot go on foreverAnselms' argumentStarts from essence and ends with existenceWhat is right for us to do, according to natural lawExpresses our nature as rational human beingsAs Aristotle understands nature, it isWhat has within it is principles of motion and restFor Aristotle, virtue wasA life lived in-between a moral excess and a moral deficitAccording to Dr. Ferguson's class discussion, how many persons were in the jury that were a part of Socrates' trial?500Augustine was a Metaphysical Dualist - using philosophical categories he asserted that reality was made up of two fundamental "substances". What were they?Time and EternityAugustine explained the relationship between Faith and Reason (Theology and Philosophy) asfaith seeking understandingAccording to Democritus and the atomists, even the human soul is composed of atoms and the voidTrueAugustine asserted that "time" wasLineal (with a beginning and an endAccording to Descartes, to establish his cogito ergo sum argument he had to begin his reasoning process with what?Systematic doubtWhat, according to Heraclitus, is wisdom?Understanding the thought that steers all thingsThales was famous for thinking that fire was the basic element out of which all else aroseFalseIn the Mediations, Descartes aims toProvide a firm foundation for knowledgeKnowing something, according to PlatoPuts you in touch with realityWhat did Plato call Socrates' method of dialogue?DialecticAccording to Augustine, the soul and the body were a single unity (the soul needed a body and the body needed a soul). A human being was thus composed of a unity of a mortal body and an immoral soul. The "soul" being the "_________" principle for both human life and reasoning. Hence life after death required the immortal soul to acquire a "resurrected" immortalized body.animatingNous, for Aristotle, is a part of the rational soulTrueHume proves our right to use the concept of cause byNone of the aboveThe categorical imperativeForbids manipulation of others four our own purposesAccording to Kant, we display a good will when we are true to our subjective intentionsFalseOne of the characteristics of knowledge, according to Plato, is that it endures, for that reason it much be about things that endureTrueOur idea of substance, Locke says, isThe idea we have in our mind of an unknown substratum but whose qualities we experience in our mindsAccording to Lock, Primary Qualities of things that exist in the world of human experience existOutside of the mindDavid Hume, as fellow Empiricist, rejected Locke's distinction between Primary and Secondary QualitiesTrueExistence, Aquinas tells usIs something added to the essence of finite thingsThe following is one of the classical arguments for the existence of God (set out in form of a syllogism). From the list of choices, correctly identify this argument: 1. Things do not create themselves. 2. The cosmos is here and is a contingent "being". 3. Therefore, the cosmos must have been created by a non-contingent being (Ergo "god").The Cosmological ArgumentNo matter how hard I try, it is impossible for me to doubtThat I am thinkingThe function of the categories is toConstruct an objective worldDid Locke assert that the real world outside of the mind existed and was made up of substance?YesIn Berkeley's Subjective Idealism, how did he avoid the danger of "Solipsism"?He asserted that God is constantly perceiving all thingsBerkeley, as fellow Empiricist, agreed with Locke's distinction between Primary and Secondary QualitiesFalseThe supreme principle of morality, according to Kant, would have to be one thatHas it foundation in pure reasonAccording to John Locke, what is "the something which upholds the physical qualities of sensible things"?matterAccording to John Locke, what is "another something which underlies and upholds intellectual activities"?mindBerkeley defends the idea of abstract ideas, noting that they derive from abstraction from particularsFalseReason and revelation, Aquinas holdsAre two compatible sources of truthAccording to John Locke's view of Primary and Secondary Qualities, he would say that "if a tree falls in the forest"And there is someone there, that person would hear the sound of the tree fallingDavid Hume, after evaluating and critiquing Locke's philosophy of "Representative Perception", asserted that we have no "meaningful" knowledge of __________ and no meaningful knowledge of __________.substance; causation